Quarterly Research Report

New Developments in Procedural Fairness: Fall 2017 Quarterly Report

This report, edited by Justine Greve, M.A., Kansas Court of Appeals and Shelley Spacek Miller, J.D., National Center for State Courts, highlights the most notable procedural fairness scholarship released over the past quarter. Each quarterly issue will also include a listing of other articles that are of particular relevance to procedural fairness and the courts. Recent news and events, if available, complete the report. Articles that are not yet in print but available on the publishers website are identified with 'published online,' and articles available via open source are denoted by a double asterisk. A pdf version of this issue can also be found here.

General Research

Annika Hillebrandt & Laurie J. Barclay, Observing Others’ Anger and Guilt Can Make You Feel Unfairly Treated: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions on Justice-Related Reactions, 30 Soc. Just. Res. 238 (2017), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11211-017-0290-5.

Drawing upon emotions as social information theory, we propose that others’ emotions can influence individuals’ justice judgments, outcome satisfaction, and behaviors even when individuals are not unfairly treated themselves and in the absence of explicit information about the fairness of others’ treatment. Study 1 demonstrated that individuals make inferences about the outcome favorability and procedural justice encountered by others based on others’ expressions of guilt and anger, which also influence individuals’ judgments of others’ overall justice and outcome satisfaction. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated that others’ emotions can influence individuals’ own judgments of procedural justice and overall justice. Specifically, individuals perceive lower levels of justice when another person expresses guilt or anger relative to no emotion. Moreover, others’ emotions influence individuals’ outcome satisfaction and behaviors (i.e., helping intentions and retaliation); these effects are mediated by individuals’ own justice judgments (i.e., procedural and overall justice). Theoretical implications related to the role of emotions as antecedents to justice judgments, the social function of emotions, and the impact of emotions on third-party observers are discussed.

Andrew Soderberg, Kristina Diekmann & Harris Sondak, Voice vs. Truth: Differential Effects of Voice and Lying on Self- and Other-Perceived Status, Acad. Mgmt. Proceedings (published online September 2017), http://proceedings.aom.org/content/2017/1/16999.short.

This research examines the relationship between two elements of procedural fairness, representativeness (given/denied voice) and ethicality (told the truth/lied to), and how these elements affect individuals’ perceptions of status of themselves and others. Results from four studies revealed that representativeness affected individuals’ self-perceived status, while ethicality affected individuals’ perceptions of status of the other actor. Additionally, we show that the effects can be explained by the extent to which representativeness and ethicality encouraged individuals to focus either on themselves or on the actor who engaged in such actions. This research provides evidence of the relationship between voice, lying, focus, and status, opening up opportunities for future research aimed at better understanding the relationship between different elements of procedural fairness, as well as the relationship between organizational fairness and business ethics more broadly.

Todd Lucas et al., Telomere Length and Procedural Justice Predict Stress Reactivity Responses to Unfair Outcomes in African Americans, 86 Psychoneuroendocrinology 104 (2017), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28938175.

This experiment demonstrates that chromosomal telomere length (TL) moderates response to injustice among African Americans. Based on worldview verification theory—an emerging psychosocial framework for understanding stress—we predicted that acute stress responses would be most pronounced when individual-level expectancies for justice were discordant with justice experiences. Healthy African Americans (N=118; 30% male; M age=31.63years) provided dried blood spot samples that were assayed for TL, and completed a social-evaluative stressor task during which high versus low levels of distributive (outcome) and procedural (decision process) justice were simultaneously manipulated. African Americans with longer telomeres appeared more resilient (in emotional and neuroendocrine response-higher DHEAs:cortisol) to receiving an unfair outcome when a fair decision process was used, whereas African Americans with shorter telomeres appeared more resilient when an unfair decision process was used. TL may indicate personal histories of adversity and associated stress-related expectancies that influence responses to injustice.


Compliance and Cooperation 

Courts and Dispute Resolution

Joshua Watts & Michael Weinrath, Manitoba’s Mental Health Court: A Consumer Perspective, 40 Manitoba L. J. 223 (2017), https://robsoncrim.scholasticahq.com/article/2597.pdf.

Mental health courts (MHC) have been growing in popularity and use in Canada and elsewhere and are lauded as a humane mechanism to divert those with mental health conditions away from the formal justice system. Research to date has tended to focus on process questions of proper referral and quantitative outcomes of reoffence rather than on feedback from the consumer, the program participant. We report findings from a mixed methods study of mental health court participants (N=20) and use numeric rankings as well as narrative responses to present client perspectives. Findings were generally favourable towards mental health court staff and programming, though some areas were rated higher than others. Feelings of procedural fairness were high, and the use of rewards and sanctions was endorsed. Some concerns about the coercive nature of the program, however, were also expressed by participants.

Daniel Dimov, Crowdsourced Online Dispute Resolution (July 2017) (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Leiden University Center for Law and Digital Technologies), https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3003815.

Solving disputes often takes a considerable amount of time and money. That holds for everyone involved. A new type of dispute resolution called Crowdsourced Online Dispute Resolution (CODR) seems to have the potential to offer a cheap, fast, and democratic dispute resolution procedure. Since it is currently not clear whether CODR procedures comply with the requirements of procedural fairness, the attractiveness and the acceptance of CODR procedures may be in discussion.

This PhD dissertation aims to establish whether CODR can fairly resolve disputes. First, it provides a framework of CODR, analyses the differences between CODR and other dispute resolution schemes, and constructs interpretation of procedural fairness that merges objective and subjective procedural fairness. Second, the research investigates whether the current CODR procedures are fair and proposes a model of a CODR procedure that complies with the interpretation of procedural fairness. The findings of the research indicate that CODR can be designed to fairly resolve disputes.

Kathy Douglas & Jennifer Hurley, The Potential of Procedural Justice in Mediation: A Study into Mediators Understandings, 29 Bond L. Rev. 69 (2017), http://epublications.bond.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1491&context=blr.

Therapeutic jurisprudence, mediation and procedural justice are closely linked non-adversarial perspectives of law. Therapeutic jurisprudence aims to use the law to enhance individuals’ wellbeing. Mediation provides benefits through its focus on the empowerment of parties. Procedural justice explains why disputants who experience validation and respect in a decision-making process are more likely to accept the outcome of a process even if they do not agree with the result. As a key platform of therapeutic jurisprudence, the benefits of procedural justice are accepted in the United States. However, the Australian legal system is yet to recognise the potential of procedural justice to assist courts to provide court users with an improved experience of the justice system. Procedural justice can occur in mediation but many mediators do not understand the potential of this kind of experience for parties. In a qualitative study exploring the practices of mediators conducted at the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal, data analysis showed that mediators did not have a strong grasp of the concept of procedural justice. However, after being given a definition of procedural justice, the majority of mediators did endorse the theory and showed intuitive insights about the needs of parties to be heard and validated in a respectful, even handed process.

Karen Tracy & Danielle Hodge, Judge Discourse Moves That Enact and Endanger Procedural Justice, Discourse & Soc’y (published online September 2017), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0957926517726112.

In this article we identify discourse moves in small claims court that have the potential to affect procedural justice—the sense that a litigant has been treated fairly and respectfully. We focus on what judges do as they address three communicative challenges that are part of small claims court judging: (1) handling the potential for appeal, (2) keeping trials short while treating litigants fairly and (3) managing the paradox of informal justice. After providing background on procedural justice and how it links to facework, and describing small claims court procedures and research, we characterize the trial data and our discourse approach. Then we explicate the discourse moves judges employed to address each of the communication challenges. This article concludes by suggesting the likely consequences of judges’ moves for litigants’ perceptions of procedural justice.

Kyndra C. Cleveland, Exploring Parents’ Legal Understanding and Justice Attitudes in Dependency Cases (2017) (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California Irvine), http://escholarship.org/uc/item/9w8121dq#.

A great deal of attention has been devoted to documenting the experiences of children involved in the dependency division of the juvenile justice system (i.e., the child protection system). Such insight is critical to inform policies that profoundly affect children and families. However, the experiences of another population involved in the dependency system are equally important—namely those of the children’s parents. Their understanding and perceptions have enormous potential to affect not only their behaviors, but the decisions rendered during the case and its eventual outcome. The current study systematically examined parents’ understanding and attitudes toward the dependency system and predictors of understanding and attitudes. The study also examined how understanding related to attitudes. The study drew from distributive (fairness of legal decisions) and procedural (fairness of legal procedures) justice frameworks to identify factors that may be particularly important for parents’ satisfaction with judicial decisions and overall perceptions of the court.

Findings revealed a lack of comprehensive understanding of the system, both generally and with regard to specific details of parents’ cases, particularly for African American parents. On average, parents felt somewhat satisfied about the system. Parents with greater understanding had more positive attitudes about procedural justice, but more negative attitudes about judicial decisions and the court, the latter potentially due, in part, to a lack of empowerment in meeting the demands of dependency cases. Distributive and procedural justice played a role in moderating the relations between understanding and attitudes such that parents with greater understanding felt particularly dissatisfied with the judge’s decisions and the court when distributive and procedural justice were low, respectively. Implications for parents’ dependency understanding and perceptions about distributive and procedural justice are discussed.


New Thinking and Interpretations

Jaunius Gumbis & Miglė Petkevičienė, Application of Selected Elements of Procedural Justice in Arbitration, 5 Y.B. Int'l Arb. 39 (2017), http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/ybinar5&div=9&id=&page.

Even though arbitral tribunals (or sole arbitrators) do not perform the function of administration of justice, arbitral proceedings shall nevertheless conform to general standards of justice. After analysing the elements of procedural justice, a conclusion is drawn that arbitration does not ensure the application of all elements of procedural justice to the fullest extent. However, it is the contractual nature of arbitration that justifies such deviations. The pursuit of justice remains one of the key aims of arbitration, irrespective of the lack of certain aspects of procedural justice.


Mahesh K. Nalla, Joseph A. Hamm & Seung Yeop Paek, Is Police Integrity an Important Predictor of Citizen Satisfaction in Police in Post-Colonial Emerging Democracies? The Case of India, Asian J. Criminology (published online July 2017), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11417-017-9254-9.

The focus of this study is to examine citizen satisfaction with the police. Specifically, the authors aim to understand the factors that determine citizen satisfaction with police services in India, a former English colony and a relatively new republic that has achieved a significant economic development in recent decades. Findings from analysis of a convenience sample (N = 845) obtained from four Northern states in India suggest that perceived procedural fairness, fear of crime, and age of the respondents predict satisfaction with police services. Moreover, perceived professionalism of police officers is found to increase their perceived procedural fairness.

Richard J. Stapleford, Digital and Social Media: The Panacea of Transformative Engagement with Young People: Rhetoric or Reality?: Qualitative Based Research Exploring Police Led Digital and Social Media Engagement with Young People in Nottinghamshire (2017) (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, London Metropolitan University), http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.722190.

The disengagement of young people from community participation is a debate that pervades the literature and is a concern for UK policing whose strategic aim is to secure the efficient and effective engagement of young people in an operational landscape that is shaped by austerity. Digital and Social Media is seen as offering immense potential to deliver enhanced participation at a fraction of the cost of traditional engagement, but there is a distinct lack of empirical research associated with the police use of digital and social media to engage young people. The aim of this research is to allow young people to shape the way Nottinghamshire Police engage with them via digital and social media. To this end, a 40-point engagement framework based on the principles of ‘Quid Pro Quo’ reciprocal engagement is offered as the product of this youthful insight. The theoretical positioning of the research is within the Interpretivist paradigm and social control theory and procedural justice theory justify why engaging young people is so important to the survival of the British style of policing. A qualitative methodology frames the research design, which includes the use of the semi-structured interview and four focus groups involving young people. The thesis suggests that young people are not disinterested, lackadaisical or apathetic when it comes to police engagement, they are simply disconnected from the police engagement framework, which appears to have failed historically to understand how and why young people wish to participate in policing. Whilst participants felt that Nottinghamshire Police’s digital offer is suitable for young people, it is concluded that digital and social media is not the ‘Holy Grail’ or indeed the panacea for police engagement and therefore young people may not yet be ready to accept such technology and swap physical visibility and accessibility for their virtual counterparts.

Ben Stickle, Does the Use of Physical Force During Contact with the Police Affect One’s Perception of Procedural Justice? 4 J. Behav. & Soc. Sci. 87 (2017)https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ben_Stickle/publication/318300494_Does_the_Use_of_Physical_Force_During_Contact_with_the_Police_Affect_One%27s_Perception_of_Procedural_Justice/links/598869270f7e9b6c8539af8e/Does-the-Use-of-Physical-Force-During-Contact-with-the-Police-Affect-Ones-Perception-of-Procedural-Justice.pdf.

According to the theory of procedural justice, when a police officer interacts with the public in ways that enhance dignity and respect, treat individuals fairly, demonstrate neutrality, and provide the opportunity for individuals to voice their concerns, the public is likely to feel they are being treated justly and will be more inclined to cooperate with the police. The present study explores the relationship between procedural justice and instances of physical force used by police officers. The data examined come from the 2008 Police-Public Contact Survey and included a wide variety of actual police contact with the public and responses that indicate public attitudes toward police after the contact. The present study finds that procedural justice violations such as pointing a gun, threatening force, and cursing, shared a relationship with physical force incidents. However, procedural justice violations such as shouting share a connection with lower rates of physical force. Finally, the present study finds that those who experienced the use of physical force were more likely to believe that the police had behaved appropriately than those who had not experienced the use of physical force.

Monica Gerber et al., On the Justification of Intergroup Violence: The Roles of Procedural Justice, Police Legitimacy and Group Identity in Attitudes Towards Violence Among Indigenous People (unpublished working paper, September 2017), https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/mz6n5/.

Why do people justify intergroup violence? In this paper we examine attitudes towards violence perpetrated by indigenous activists to claim for rights and violence by police officers against indigenous people. We assess the role that perceived police legitimacy, procedurally just policing towards the indigenous minority group and group identity play in the justification of intergroup violence. We present findings from two surveys (Study 1, n=1493, Study 2, n=198) and an experiment (Study 3, n=76) conducted among indigenous people in Chile. Studies 1 and 2 measure perceptions of police procedural justice towards indigenous people. Study 3 manipulates the fairness with which police officers treat indigenous people. Effects of procedural justice on police legitimacy (Studies 2 and 3) and attitudes towards violence for social change and social control (Studies 1-3) are analyzed.

Higher perceptions of procedurally just policing towards indigenous people predict more support for police violence and less support for violence perpetrated by indigenous activists. These effects are mediated by perceived police legitimacy and moderated by identification with the minority group. Among people who identify strongly with their indigenous group, perceiving high procedural justice predicts greater police legitimacy, greater support for police violence, and lesser support for violence perpetrated by indigenous activists.

Amy E. Nivette & Thomas D. Akoensi, Determinants of Satisfaction with Police in a Developing Country: A Randomised Vignette Study, Policing & Soc’y (published online September 2017), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10439463.2017.1380643.

This study examines the effects of three theoretical factors representing both process-based and outcome-based dimensions of police actions on attitudes towards police using an experimental vignette design. We constructed two vignettes depicting citizens’ plausible encounters with police in an urban setting in a developing country (i.e. Accra, Ghana) and varied the level of police procedural justice, measured by quality of treatment, lawfulness, measured by whether or not a bribe is present, and effectiveness, measured by whether or not the offender was caught. In line with previous research, we find that dimensions of police procedural justice, lawfulness, and effectiveness all increase citizens’ satisfaction. However, we find that in certain situations, unlawfulness and ineffectiveness can undermine any positive influence of procedural justice policing on satisfaction. These findings have implications for criminal justice institutions seeking to improve relations with citizens and boost satisfaction and ultimately legitimacy.

Rick Trinkner, Jonathan Jackson & Tom Tyler, Expanding ‘Appropriate’ Police Behavior Beyond Procedural Justice: Bounded Authority and Legal Legitimation (unpublished manuscript, July 2017), https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/nezm6/.

This paper expands previous conceptualizations of appropriate police behavior beyond procedural justice. The focus of the current study is on the notion of bounded authority—i.e. respecting the limits of one’s power. Work on legal socialization shows how citizens come to acquire three dimensions of values that determine how authorities ought to behave: (a) neutral, consistent and transparent decision-making; (b) interpersonal treatment that conveys respect, dignity and concern; and (c) respect for the limits of rightful authority. Using survey data from a nationally representative sample of US adults, we show that concerns over bounded authority, respectful treatment, and neutral decision-making combine to form a strong predictor of police and legal legitimacy. Legal legitimacy is also associated with greater compliance behavior, controlling for personal morality and perceived likelihood of sanctions. Our conclusions address some future directions of research, particularly in the extension of procedural justice theory.

Jasmine R. Silver et al., Traditional Police Culture, Use of Force, and Procedural Justice: Investigating Individual, Organizational, and Contextual Factors, Just. Q. (published online September 2017), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418825.2017.1381756.

Traditional police culture (TPC) is a set of attitudes and values, developed as coping mechanisms for police work’s unique and inherent strains, that fosters distrust toward, and isolation from, citizens. An online survey of 781 American police officers from 48 U.S. states is used to assess: first, the individual, organizational, and contextual correlates of endorsement of TPC, and second, whether endorsement of TPC relates to support for the use of force and support for procedurally just tactics. Results indicate that, apart from supervisor status and supervisor race, individual-level officer characteristics are not related to endorsement of TPC. By contrast, organizational factors—agency size and type—relate to endorsement of TPC among line officers, but not supervisors. Results also indicate that support for use of force and support for procedural justice are strongly linked to TPC endorsement among both line officers and managers.

Jelmer Brouwer, Maartje Van Der Woude & Joanne Van Der Leun, Border Policing, Procedural Justice and Belonging: The Legitimacy of (Cr)immigration Controls in Border Areas, Brit. J. Criminology (published online August 2017), https://academic.oup.com/bjc/article-abstract/4093237/Border-policing-procedural-justice-and-belonging.

Research suggests that social identity plays an important role in citizens’ views of legal authorities. This article draws on fieldwork observations and semi-structured interviews or surveys to examine both officers’ perceptions and the experiences of people that are stopped in the context of border policing in the border areas of the Netherlands. Our results indicate that non-Dutch citizens and Dutch majority group members generally find these stops acceptable, while Dutch ethnic minority group members perceive them as more problematic. This was mostly related to the feeling of being profiled and a lack of clarity about the reason for the stop. While officers were committed to fair treatment, they also believed that the impact of a stop is very limited. The article finishes by discussing the implications of these findings for issues of belonging and legitimacy.

Megan Marie Parry, Watching the Watchmen: How Videos of Police-Citizen Encounters Influence Individuals’ Perceptions of the Police (April 2017) (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Arizona State University), https://repository.asu.edu/attachments/186564/content/Parry_asu_0010E_17096.pdf.

Recently, there has been an upsurge in highly publicized negative police-citizen encounters, contributing to the current crisis in police legitimacy. These encounters, mostly filmed and disseminated by citizens, provide a new type of vicarious experience through which the viewer can assess police-citizen interactions, potentially shaping their perceptions of the police. These recordings have sparked national conversations and protests regarding police behavior and treatment of minority citizens. An area that has received less attention, however, is what effect viewing video recordings of less contentious police-citizen interactions has on public perceptions of police. To that end, this study seeks to address the knowledge gap through experimental methodology. Using actual footage of a variety of police-citizen encounters, this study examines the impact of viewing videos of police encounters on individuals' perceptions of police legitimacy, procedural justice, estimates of police misconduct, and their willingness to cooperate with police. Also examined are the impact these videos have on support for officer bodyworn cameras and willingness to film the police. The findings indicate the impact of viewing police-citizen encounters on individual perceptions and attitudes are primarily linked to the content—whether positive, negative or neutral—of the video. Specifically, positive videos depicting procedurally just encounters increased perceptions of procedural justice, decreased estimations of police misconduct and increased support for officer body-worn cameras. Viewing negative videos, however, decreased perceptions of police legitimacy, distributive fairness, and procedural justice while increasing estimations of police misconduct and willingness to film the police in the future. The effects of the video encounters on perceptions of police were not lasting and were not stable when respondents were surveyed again two weeks later. Lasting effects were found for individuals’ self-reported willingness to film the police in the future. Given these findings, the process-based model of policing should consider also incorporating digital vicarious experiences when examining factors impacting perceptions of police.

Olalla Baz & Esther Fernández-Molina, Process-Based Model in Adolescence: Analyzing Police Legitimacy and Juvenile Delinquency Within a Legal Socialization Framework, Euro. J. Crim. Pol’y & Res. (published online August 2017), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10610-017-9357-y.

The empirical evidence on the process-based model of self-regulation shows that procedural justice evaluations and the perceived legitimacy of authorities impact law-abiding behavior. However, few studies analyze this theory from the perspective of adolescent legal socialization. The present study aims to examine the process-based model and other socializing agents such as family, school and peers that may have an effect on it. The sample comprised 2041 youths residing in Spain, aged between 13 and 18 years. The data form part of the Third International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD-3). Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to predict police legitimacy and juvenile delinquency. The results reveal that police legitimacy perceptions are not only influenced by procedural justice, but also by parental monitoring, school attachment, and delinquent peers. Moreover, perceptions of police legitimacy, parental monitoring, and delinquent peers predict juvenile delinquency. These findings complement and add new explanatory factors to the process-based model.

Sarah Bennett, Mike Newman & Michelle Sydes, Mobile Police Community Office: A Vehicle for Reducing Crime, Crime Harm and Enhancing Police Legitimacy? 13 J. Experimental Criminology 417 (2017), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11292-017-9302-6.

Objectives: A key objective for police is to develop innovative and adaptive methods to efficiently maintain public safety and foster strong police–community relations. The Queensland Police Service (QPS) designed the Mobile Police Community Office (MPCO), a purpose-built van with many of the same facilities of a police station, and trained MPCO officers to engage with members of the public using principles of procedural justice. This paper reports on whether the MPCO can be a “vehicle” to reduce crime, crime impact and enhance police legitimacy in crime hot spots in Brisbane, Australia.

Methods: We matched 24 hot spots based on crime and location characteristics. Within pairs, hot spots were randomly assigned to either the existing police response or the existing response plus the MPCO for two days at prevalent crime times/days. A public survey assessing perceptions of police legitimacy was administered during deployment. Our study compared official crime counts for a period of two months pre-/post-deployment date for experimental and control hot spots. We developed a crime impact score using QPS offense level descriptions and corresponding Queensland legislation penalties as an additional efficacy measure.

Results: We found a modest yet insignificant decrease in crime between the pre- and post-intervention period and no significant difference in crime impact scores. While some argue that hot spot policing can reduce legitimacy, we found no evidence to support this claim.

Edward R. Maguire, Belén V. Lowrey & Devon Johnson, Evaluating the Relative Impact of Positive and Negative Encounters with Police: A Randomized Experiment, 13 J. Experimental Criminology 367 (2017), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11292-016-9276-9.

Objectives: Examines the influence of positive, negative, and neutral police behavior during traffic stops on citizen perceptions of police.

Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to view a video clip of a simulated traffic stop in which the officer communicates with the driver in a positive (procedurally just), negative (procedurally unjust), or neutral manner. After viewing the video, participants completed a survey about their perceptions of police, including their level of trust in police, obligation to obey police orders, and willingness to cooperate with police.

Results: Observing positive interactions with police enhanced people’s self-reported willingness to cooperate with police, obligation to obey police and the law, and trust and confidence in police, whereas observing negative interactions undermined these outcomes. The effects of these interactions were much stronger for encounter-specific outcomes than for more general outcomes.

Conclusions: The results from this randomized experiment confirm that procedural justice can enhance people’s prosocial attitudes toward police, whereas procedural injustice can undermine these attitudes. While positive (procedurally just) interactions tend to have weaker effects than negative (procedurally unjust) interactions, this study finds little support for the notion that only negative experiences shape people’s views about the police.

Sarah MacQueen & Ben Bradford, Where Did It All Go Wrong? Implementation Failure—and More—in a Field Experiment of Procedural Justice Policing, 13 J. Experimental Criminology 321 (2017), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11292-016-9278-7.

Objectives: This paper presents the findings from a retrospective qualitative process evaluation to the Scottish Community Engagement Trial (ScotCET). The study explores the unanticipated results of a randomized field trial testing the effect of ‘procedurally just’ modes of road policing on public perceptions of police. The ScotCET intervention failed to produce the hypothesized results, producing instead significant, and unexplained, negative effects on key aspects of public perception. The present study seeks to examine, from the perspectives of officers implementing the experiment, what the impacts (intended or otherwise) of participation were.

Methods: Group interviews were held within the ScotCET experiment ‘units’ to explore how officers had collectively interpreted and framed ScotCET, and responded as a group to its requirements/demands. Nine groups were held over a 5-month period post experiment completion.

Results: Findings indicate that communication breakdowns during the ScotCET implementation led to misunderstandings of its aims and objectives, and of the requirements placed on officers. Within the context of organizational reform and perceived organizational ‘injustice’, commonly cited aspects of police culture were invoked to facilitate non-compliance with aspects of the experimental intervention, leading to implementation failures, and, possibly, a diffuse negative effect on the attitudes and behaviors of experiment officers.

Conclusions: Organizational structures and processes, and coercive top-down direction, are insufficient to ensure successful implementation of policing research, and, by implication, policing reforms, particularly those that demand alternative ways of ‘doing’ policing and ‘seeing’ citizens. Greater investment in organizational justice and encouraging openness to evidence-led knowledge is needed to promote change.

Gali Perry, Tal Jonathan-Zamir & David Weisburd, The Effect of Paramilitary Protest Policing on Protestors' Trust in the Police: The Case of the “Occupy Israel” Movement, Law & Soc’y Rev. (published online August 2017), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/lasr.12279/full.

The use of paramilitary methods in civil policing tasks has become common in Western police agencies. Despite propositions that such methods should undermine the relationship between the police and the public, the effect of paramilitary policing on public trust in the police has not been empirically tested. In the present study, we examine this question in the context of protest policing, which has become a major concern for Western police agencies. Using a survey of 470 protesters who participated in “Occupy” protest events in Israel in 2012, we find that the perceived use of paramilitary methods has an independent and negative effect on trust, stronger than that of police effectiveness and the “neutrality” component of procedural justice. In-depth interviews suggest that the significance of paramilitarism may be the result of a sense of alienation and criminalization it elicits among protesters who generally perceive themselves as law-abiding citizens.

Jocelyn Fontaine et al., Urban Institute, Mistrust and Ambivalence between Residents and the Police: Evidence from Four Chicago Neighborhoods (2017), https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/92316/2017.07.31_legitimacy_brief_finalized_0.pdf.

This brief proceeds in four sections. First, we discuss the importance of strong police-resident relationships; then, we outline the study methodology and the demographic characteristics of the sampled groups. Next, we present key findings on residents’ perceptions of procedural fairness of police and support for officer behavior and actions, residents’ perceptions of unreasonable stops, residents’ willingness to participate in crime control, and police officers’ perceptions of community cooperation and community trust. A final section summarizes the key findings and discusses the implications of our findings for police-community relationships and crime control, which are most relevant for the people living in the neighborhoods we studied and executive staff and patrol officers in the Chicago Police Department.

Elise Sargeant, Emma Antrobus & Deborah Platz, Promoting a Culture of Fairness: Police Training, Procedural Justice, and Compliance, 13 J. Experimental Criminology 347 (2017), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11292-017-9296-0.

Objectives: Academics and practitioners alike are concerned about the potential “double-edged sword” of procedural justice. In the organizational context, procedural justice is expected to increase compliance with supervisors. However, blind, unthinking, or “hard” compliance with supervisors, may lead to anti-organizational behavior and misconduct. The present study examines the moderating effect of a police recruit cultural training program on the relationship between procedural justice and compliance with police supervisors. We expect that providing cultural training will moderate the relationship between procedural justice and “hard” compliance.

Methods: Participants were police recruits at the Queensland Police Academy who were randomly assigned to an experimental (Voice 4 Values) or control condition (business-as-usual training) upon entry into the academy. Recruits in both groups were surveyed pre- and post- training to capture perceptions of procedural justice and compliance with supervisors.

Results: Results suggest that procedural justice mattered less for predicting “hard” or unthinking compliance among the recruits who received the Voice 4 Values cultural training package, compared to those who did not receive the training.

Conclusions: We conclude that while procedural justice may be of interest to policing organizations, it is important that it is not used as a tool to encourage unthinking compliance. We find cultural training reduces the effect of procedural justice on unthinking or “hard” compliance.

Kristina Murphy, Challenging the ‘Invariance’ Thesis: Procedural Justice Policing and the Moderating Influence of Trust on Citizens’ Obligation to Obey Police, 13 J. Experimental Criminology 429 (2017), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11292-017-9298-y.

Objectives: This paper examines the effects of a procedural justice policing intervention on citizens’ feelings of obligation to obey police. It examines whether the efficacy of procedural justice on citizens’ obligation to obey police may be contingent on citizens’ level of trust in police during a police–citizen encounter.

Methods: This research draws on survey data from the Queensland Community Engagement Trial (QCET). QCET was a randomized controlled field trial implemented by the Queensland Police Service. The trial exposed citizens to either a procedural justice experience (experimental condition) or standard police practice (control condition) during a random roadside stop. Survey responses were received from 1107 drivers in the experimental condition and 1655 drivers in the control condition.

Results: Compared to the control condition, the procedural justice condition yielded higher levels of trust in the police officer conducting the roadside stop. No differences in obligation to obey police were observed between the two conditions. Importantly, citizens’ level of trust in the officer moderated the effect of the intervention on obligation to obey police. Specifically, the procedural justice condition had a negative effect on obligation to obey for those reporting low trust in police. For those high in trust, the procedural justice intervention had a slight but insignificant positive effect on obligation to obey.

Conclusions: The findings suggest that procedural justice effects can vary between individuals; specifically, the findings reveal that procedural justice interventions can sometimes be counter-productive, depending on the level of trust a citizen exhibits toward police during an encounter. Police agencies should therefore be aware of potential counter-productive effects when implementing procedural justice in the field.

Madeleine Novich & Geoffrey Hunt, Trust in Police Motivations During Involuntary Encounters: An Examination of Young Gang Members of Colour, Race & Just. (published online August 2017), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/2153368717718027.

Problems related to distrust of police, including aggressive and prejudicial police behavior, continue to raise concerns. Using a procedural justice model, the present study examines perceptions of trust or the lack thereof among a subpopulation of young disadvantaged minority youth that routinely come in contact with the police: drug-dealing gang members. In this article, we examine 253 qualitative in-depth interviews comprised primarily of African American and Latino male and female drug-involved gang members, utilizing a comparative analysis, to examine how participants discuss interactions with law enforcement and describe situations where they trust the police or situations where they do not. The findings suggest that the context in which they were stopped operates as a primary differentiating component that shapes their perceptions of trust in the motivations behind police engagement. When stopped by the police for “justifiable” reasons, the participants expressed a trust in the motivations that necessitated the encounter. However, when stopped for reasons, which appeared as unreasonable, our participants voiced a strong sense of distrust in the motivations of the police. These findings suggest that procedural justice scholars should consider the extent to which the type or context of the encounter with the police plays an important role in influencing feelings of trust.

Jason Lee, Of Course the Cops Are Racist: Procedural Justice, the Perception of Racial Profiling, and Citizen Satisfaction with Law Enforcement, 18 Criminology, Crim. Just. L. & Soc’y 80 (2017), http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/wescrim18&div=17&id=&page.

Racial profiling is typically treated in the academic literature as just one more null hypothesis to be tested. An area that has potentially greater impact, and that has been relatively neglected in the literature, is the perception among citizens that individual police officers engage in racial profiling. Using two waves of statewide survey data from 2003 to 2007, the current study examines the impact that the perception of racial profiling and attributions of procedural fairness and justice have upon citizen satisfaction with individual police officers. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that the perception of racial profiling and broad attributions of procedural justice had a significant impact upon citizen perceptions of individual law enforcement officers, while more traditional indicators such as race, gender, and educational attainment failed to achieve statistical significance.

Thomas Baker & Jacinta M. Gau, Female Offenders’ Perceptions of Police Procedural Justice and Their Obligation to Obey the Law, Crime & Delinquency (published July 2017), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0011128717719418.

Although the process-based model of criminal justice has received substantial empirical attention, few previous studies have examined individuals embedded in a criminal lifestyle and at the most risk for future offending, and few have focused exclusively on female offenders. Employing structural equation modeling, the present study tests the process-based model of self-regulation among a sample of 694 incarcerated females. Specifically examined is the effect of perceptions of voice in respondents’ most recent encounter with police on their perceptions of police procedural justice and the impact of respondents’ procedural justice perceptions on their perceived obligation to obey the law. Results reveal support for the process-based model among serious female offenders, though the impact may be attenuated by increased experience with the criminal justice system. Policy implications are discussed.

Jody Dorgan, Perceptions of Procedural Justice and Police Legitimacy: A Life History Perspective (2016) (unpublished M.A. thesis, Victoria University of Wellington), http://researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10063/6237/thesis_access.pdf?sequence=1.

Prior research on attitudes towards the police has largely focused on the relationship between demographic factors and perceptions of the police. These studies have produced inconclusive results, and there is no general consensus why and how demographic factors account for individual differences in attitudes towards the police. Life history theory, a “middle-level” evolutionary theory, is one that has largely been neglected in mainstream criminology, but has been used in the current research to explain individual differences in attitudes towards the police. Two studies, both using an online survey, were conducted to explore the extent to which life history strategy explained individual attitudes towards procedural justice, police legitimacy and police socialization after controlling for demographic factors, previous police interaction and prior arrest. Study one, a university sample of 305 participants and study two, a general population sample of 75 Wellington residents both found support for the application of life history theory being used to explain individual differences in attitudes towards the police. Overall, the current research showed that those with a slower life history strategy were more likely hold more positive perceptions of police legitimacy, procedural justice and police socialization regardless of demographic factors, previous police interaction, and prior arrest.


New Thinking and Interpretations

Ben Bradford, Stop and Search and Police Legitimacy (2017), https://www.routledge.com/Stop-and-Search-and-Police-Legitimacy/Bradford/p/book/9780415708647.

Stop and Search and Police Legitimacy draws upon both police-administrative and survey-based data to examine what has for many years been one of the most highly charged and contested aspects of police practice. Taking a decidedly quantitative, empirical, approach, this book examines the patterning of police stops over social and geographic space, the problem of ethnic disproportionality, and the evidence concerning how people experience and react to being stopped by police—particularly in relation to issues of fairness, legitimacy, cooperation and compliance. A further important concern is the extent to which this form of police practice shapes and re-shapes the identities of those affected by it.

Sebastian Roché & Dietrich Oberwittler, Police Citizen Relations Around the World: Comparing Sources and Contexts of Trust and Legitimacy (2017), https://www.crcpress.com/Police-Citizen-Relations-Across-the-World-Comparing-sources-and-contexts/Oberwittler-Roche/p/book/9781138222861.

Police-citizen relations are in the public spotlight following outbursts of anger and violence. Such clashes often happen as a response to fatal police shootings, racial or ethnic discrimination, or the mishandling of mass protests. But even in such cases, citizens’ assessment of the police differs considerably across social groups. This raises the question of the sources and impediments of citizens’ trust and support for police. Why are police-citizen relations much better in some countries than in others? Are police-minority relations doomed to be strained? And which police practices and policing policies generate trust and legitimacy? Research on police legitimacy has been centred on US experiences, and relied on procedural justice as the main theoretical approach. This book questions whether this approach is suitable and sufficient to understand public attitudes towards the police across different countries and regions of the world. This volume shows that the impact of macro-level conditions, of societal cleavages, and of state and political institutions on police-citizen relations has too often been neglected in contemporary research. Building on empirical studies from around the world as well as cross-national comparisons, this volume considerably expands current perspectives on the sources of police legitimacy and citizens’ trust in the police. Combining the analysis of micro-level interactions with a perspective on the contextual framework and varying national conditions, the contributions to this book illustrate the strength of a broadened perspective and lead to ask how specific national frameworks shape the experiences of policing.

Robert Worden & Sarah McLean, Mirage of Police Reform: Procedural Justice and Police Legitimacy (2017), http://www.oapen.org/search?identifier=631931.

In the United States, the exercise of police authority—and the public’s trust that police authority is used properly—is a recurring concern. Contemporary prescriptions for police reform hold that the public would trust the police more and feel a greater obligation to comply and cooperate if police-citizen interactions were marked by higher levels of procedural justice by police. In this book, Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. McLean argue that the procedural justice model of reform is a mirage. From a distance, procedural justice seems to offer relief from strained police-community relations. But a closer look at police organizations and police-citizen interactions shows that the relief offered by such reform is, in fact, illusory. A procedural justice model of policing is likely to be only loosely coupled with police practice, despite the best intentions, and improvements in procedural justice on the part of police are unlikely to result in corresponding improvements in citizens’ perceptions of procedural justice.


Business and Management

Samina Quratulain, Abdul Karim Khan & Meghna Sabharwal, Procedural Fairness, Public Service Motives, and Employee Work Outcomes: Evidence from Pakistani Public Service Organizations, Rev. Pub. Personnel Admin. (published online July 2017), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0734371X17718029.

Studies in public administration hypothesize the direct effect of public service motivation (PSM) on employee attitudes and behavior. We examine the relationship between public employees’ perceptions of procedural fairness on job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and propose the moderating effect of PSM dimensions on the aforementioned relationships. Using a sample of 232 respondents drawn from multiple public service organizations, our findings indicate a positive relationship between procedural fairness perceptions and employee work outcomes (job satisfaction and organizational commitment). PSM dimensions of attraction to policy making (rational motive) and public interest (normative motive) moderate the relationship between procedural fairness and employee outcomes. However, their effect was significant only for individuals who experienced low levels of these motivations. The moderating effect of compassion (affective motive) was significant for individuals possessing high level of compassion. The implications and future research directions are discussed.

Azman Ismail & Mohd Ridwan Abd Razak, Managers’ Roles in Performance-Based Reward Enhancing Employees’ Feelings of Procedural Justice, 21 Kinerja: J. Bus. & Econ. 145 (2017), http://ojs.uajy.ac.id/index.php/kinerja/article/view/1279/1014.

This study assesses the correlation between managers’ roles in performance based reward and procedural justice at disaster agencies in Malaysia. The outcomes of SmartPLS (PLS-SEM) path model analysis demonstrated that the capability of management to correctly apply communication, involvement and performance assessment in performance-based reward could lead to higher employees' feelings of procedural justice in the organizational sample. Further, this study offers discussion, implications, and conclusion.

Lalit Kumar Yadav & Pawan Gupta, Procedural Justice, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: Mediating Role of Organizational Trust—Indian Tourism Industry Study, Mgmt. & Labour Stud. (published online September 2017), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0258042X17718738.

This study attempts to understand job satisfaction (JS) and organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in relation to procedural justice (PJ). It also studies the mechanism through which PJ is likely to influence the dependent variables. On the basis of existing literature, organizational trust is identified as the mediating instrument through which PJ may affect JS and OCB.

A survey-based design was used to collect data from 204 employees in the National Capital Region of Delhi. The respondents were working in organizations that broadly encompass the tourism industry. Correlation, regression and hierarchical multiple regression were used to test the model in the study. The mediation model was also tested using the bias-corrected percentile method with 5000 bootstrap samples.

The results of the study corroborated with the previous findings and the stated hypotheses, with the exception that organizational trust was found not to mediate the relation between PJ and OCB. Some significant implications for managers and organizations can be gauged from this study. Managers must work towards establishing fair procedures in all aspects of organizational functioning. They should also decipher the attributes of organizational trust which are perceived as valuable by the employees.

Siti Zakiah Abu Bakar, Service Recovery in E-Services: Service Recovery Process, Perceived Justice and Satisfaction (May 2017) (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Southern Illinois University), http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/dissertations/1328/.

This study investigated the relationships between e-service recovery processes attributes (compensation, respond speed, and apology) and perceived justice constructs (interactional, distributive, and procedural), and examined the relationship between perceived justice and e-service recovery satisfaction. Data from a community of students and knowledge workers in a Mid-western university was collected to analyze the effects of these constructs in service recovery processes for the purpose of designing recovery policy. . . . The results indicate that all service recovery process attributes had a significant main effect on all perceived justice variables. This suggests that the different levels of compensation, response speed, and apology will impact a customer’s perception of perceived justice. There is also a marginally significant interaction effect for compensation and apology. This significant interaction effect could indicate that the positive impact of an apology as part of a service recovery process could be intensified when accompanied by monetary compensation. Furthermore, the findings indicate that perceived justice (interactional justice, distributive justice, and procedural justice) are significant drivers of satisfaction in an e-service recovery. There was also a significant interaction effect with distributive justice and procedural justice in predicting e-service recovery satisfaction. The result suggests that when compensation is given, customers perceive that the e-service provider is following the rules and regulations in providing compensation in exchange for their losses. This helps transition the customer to a more equitable and satisfied state.

Syed Mudasser Abbas et al., Impact of Justices, Training, and Co-Ordination on Government Employees’ Job Satisfaction: A Case of Pakistan, 5 J. Hum. Resource & Sustainability Stud. 179 (2017), http://file.scirp.org/pdf/JHRSS_2017092614510194.pdf.

This research seeks to investigate the influence of different public sector organizational antecedents on government employees’ job satisfaction. Extensive reviews of literature revealed perceived procedural justice, distributive justice, esprit de corps and job training as the most referred antecedents of employees’ job satisfaction. To empirically test the study hypotheses, data were collected from 332 personnel working in National Savings (Public sector investment bank in Pakistan). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the data using SPSS Statistics 23 and AMOS 21. The results of this research generally support the hypothesis proposing the relationships between organizational antecedents (procedural and organizational justice and esprit de corps) and job satisfaction, except the association between employee’s training and job satisfaction. The study helps in formulating policies regarding workforce and labor management by providing in-depth insight to the concerned authorities of various government organizations. This research, in addition to limitations, provides some tangible future research directions for future researchers in the light of its findings.

Anna Schuler & Heike Bruch, The Effect of I-Deals on Organizations: Makes Idiosyncrasy I-Deals Non-Ideal? Acad. Mgmt. Proceedings (published online September 2017), http://proceedings.aom.org/content/2017/1/11519.short.

What are effects of the increasing emergence of customized work arrangements on organizations? While prior research has related idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) to a range of desirable outcomes on individual level, much less is known about outcomes from a collective perspective. Concerns have been raised regarding employees’ fairness evaluations due to inequality caused by i-deals and subsequent effects for organizational performance. Our study aims at filling this gap in research by addressing the role of i-deals from an organizational perspective. Specifically, we examine the effects of i-deals differentiation on organizational performance. First evidence implies that the extent to which i-deals differentiation is beneficial to organizations depends on organizational context factors. Study results based on data from 96 German organizations reveal a three-way interaction between i-deals differentiation, organizational median i-deals and procedural justice climate in organizations on the perceived distributive justice of employees. Further, distributive justice climate mediates the effect of i-deals differentiation on organizational performance. Support for a mediated moderation model is provided by the results.

Marius van Dijke et al., Ranking Low, Feeling High: How Hierarchical Position and Experienced Power Promote Prosocial Behavior in Response to Procedural Justice, J. Applied Psychol. (published online September 2017), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28933910.

Research shows that power can lead to prosocial behavior by facilitating the behavioral expression of dispositional prosocial motivation. However, it is not clear how power may facilitate responses to contextual factors that promote prosocial motivation. Integrating fairness heuristic theory and the situated focus theory of power, we argue that in particular, organization members in lower (vs. higher) hierarchical positions who simultaneously experience a high (vs. low) sense of power respond with prosocial behavior to 1 important antecedent of prosocial motivation, that is, the enactment of procedural justice. The results from a multisource survey among employees and their leaders from various organizations (Study 1) and an experiment using a public goods dilemma (Study 2) support this prediction. Three subsequent experiments (Studies 3-5) show that this effect is mediated by perceptions of authority trustworthiness. Taken together, this research (a) helps resolve the debate regarding whether power promotes or undermines prosocial behavior, (b) demonstrates that hierarchical position and the sense of power can have very different effects on processes that are vital to the functioning of an organization, and (c) helps solve ambiguity regarding the roles of hierarchical position and power in fairness heuristic theory.

Béatrice Siadou-Martin et al., Salespeople, Fairness, and Buyer Satisfaction: What About Emotions? 24 J. Business-to-Business Marketing 221 (2017), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1051712X.2017.1345261.

Methodology and Results: Although most studies focus on rational decision-making in organizational buying, this research examines the satisfaction through the integration of fairness and emotion theories. . . . A survey of 130 buyers was conducted.. . . . Results show that both distributive and procedural fairness have a positive impact on buyer’s satisfaction, following two different paths: a rational path with fairness acting directly on satisfaction; and an emotional path where emotions play a mediator role.

Practical Implications: Sellers must pay attention to their customer policies from the perspective of their customers. In addition to guaranteeing a “fair” outcome, sellers must ensure that buyers are subject only to procedures that customers perceive to be fair. Indeed, since buyers in business relationships are not completely rational, business-to-business (B-to-B) experts should acknowledge the influence of emotions in their sales strategies.

Originality/value: The mediating impact of emotion in the fairness–satisfaction relationship has not been explored in buyer–seller settings previously. Deconstructing satisfaction with the decision process into its cognitive and affective elements, we examine the emotional dimension of B-to-B buying process.

Michael Mulvaney, Performance Appraisals in Public Parks and Recreation: A Study of Employees’ Short and Longer Term Attitudes Toward the Appraisal System, 35 J. Park & Recreation Admin. 86 (2017), http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=4bb6e40f-2c73-40e5-beea-e78c7c6fdf28%40sessionmgr4008&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=123801635&db=afh.

Well-designed employee performance appraisals assume great importance by providing park and recreation agencies with information that can guide administrative and developmental decision-making about their most important asset—their human resources. Despite their importance, an agency's performance appraisal system can often be viewed by employees and management as a frustrating and unfair process. Responding to these issues, a pay-for-performance appraisal system was developed in 2004 for the Elmhurst Park District (Elmhurst, IL) that utilized an employee participation model and was guided by the appraisal literature. The purpose of this study was to examine the employees' longer-term reactions to the implementation and administration of the performance appraisal system over the past 10 years. Data was collected at three points: (1) in 2004, prior to the start of the pay-for-performance workshops (n = 56); (2) in 2005 at the conclusion of the workshops and initial implementation of the newly developed system (n = 56); and (3) in 2014-15, 10 years after implementation of the system (n = 51). Drawing from existing management literature and the utilization of an employee participation model, this 10-year follow-up study sought to address the following questions: To what extent are the employees' (1) overall satisfaction, (2) perceptions of accuracy of the appraisal ratings, (3) perceptions of procedural justice, and (4) perceptions of distributive justice with the appraisal system different in 2014-15 compared to 2005 and the original system in 2004? Analyses indicated that there were significant differences between employees' attitudes toward their agencies' performance appraisal systems in 2004 compared to 2005 and 2014-15. Study findings and implications for management are discussed.

Huong Le, Yuka Fujimoto & Ingrid Nielsen, Inclusion and Affective Wellbeing: The Mediating Roles of Procedural and Distributive Justice, Acad. Mgmt. Proceedings (published online September 2017), http://proceedings.aom.org/content/2017/1/14806.short.

This paper examines the mediating roles of procedural justice and distributive justice in the organizational inclusion–affective wellbeing relationship. Data were collected from 253 Australian employees using an online survey. The study used confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling to analyze the data. The findings show that organizational inclusion was positively related to both distributive justice and procedural justice. The relationship between organizational inclusion and affective wellbeing was mediated by both distributive justice and procedural justice. Drawing upon the relational and group-value theoretical model, this paper advances the literature by demonstrating two mediating mechanisms driving the organizational inclusion–affective wellbeing relationship. This paper also provides a number of practical implications. Implementation of inclusion training activities at organizational, group, and individual levels is important to enhance perceptions of organizational inclusion and subsequently improve employee affective wellbeing.

Dirk De Clercq & Imanol Belausteguigoitia, Reducing the Harmful Effect of Role Ambiguity on Turnover Intentions: The Roles of Innovation Propensity, Goodwill Trust, and Procedural Justice, 46 Personnel Rev. 1046, http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/PR-08-2015-0221.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how employees’ perceptions of role ambiguity might increase their turnover intentions and how this harmful effect might be buffered by employees’ access to relevant individual (innovation propensity), relational (goodwill trust), and organizational (procedural justice) resources. Uncertainty due to unclear role descriptions decreases in the presence of these resources, so employees are less likely to respond to this adverse work situation in the form of enhanced turnover intentions.

Quantitative data came from a survey of employees of a large organization in the distribution sector. Role ambiguity enhances turnover intentions, but this effect diminishes at higher levels of innovation propensity, goodwill trust, and procedural justice. . . . This investigation shows how employees’ negative reactions to role ambiguity (turnover intentions) can be mitigated by three uncertainty-reducing resources: personal joy from developing new ideas, the extent to which relationships with colleagues is trustworthy, and perceptions that organizational procedures are fair.

Kathryn Sarah Roloff, To Thine Own Self Be True Says Who? The Perceived Authenticity of a Leader’s Fairness, Acad. Mgmt. Proceedings (published online September 2017), http://proceedings.aom.org/content/2017/1/14035.short.

The merits of authentic leadership have received considerable attention in recent years (Avolio & Gardner, 2005). Indeed the notion of a leader acting consistently with internal values has been shown to have positive effects on follower outcomes such as performance (Leroy, Palanski, & Simons, 2012), engagement, and organizational citizenship behavior (Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008). However, it is not understood how followers form a perception about the authenticity of a leader’s behavior to complement what is known about how leaders see themselves as authentic. This research answers this question by examining follower perceptions about the authenticity of a leader’s invitation of subordinate voice into a promotion decision. This particular leadership scenario was selected due to both the longstanding evidence of the value of participative leadership (Lewin, Lippett & White, 1939; Lowin, 1968) and because of the well documented positive effect of inviting voice into decision-making procedures from studies on procedural justice (Lind, Kanfer, & Early, 1990; Thibaut & Walker, 1975). Through an experimental study performed with 300 participants, it was found that a the perception of a leader’s authenticity was higher when the invitation for voice was seen as self-originating (as opposed to being required by an external force) and was performed with the intention of achieving a fair outcome (as opposed to achieving a self-interested goal). In addition, high ratings of leader authenticity were associated with higher ratings of trust in the leader.

Sarah Hudson, Helena V. González-Gómez & Cyrlene Claasen, Legitimacy, Particularism and Employee Commitment and Justice, J. Bus. Ethics (published online September 2017), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10551-017-3685-1.

Research on the effects of particularistic human resource practices (i.e., favoritism and nepotism) on organizational outcomes has concentrated on direct negative attitudinal and behavioral responses. By integrating legitimacy and social exchange theories, this paper proposes and tests the idea that legitimacy of particularistic practices might moderate their negative effects on employee attitudes at work. Through a survey of 415 employees across multiple organizational types, we show that the legitimacy of particularism mitigates its negative effects on affective commitment and perceived distributive and procedural justice in non-family-owned businesses only. We discuss implications for theory and practice.


Han Li et al., Self-Control, Organizational Context, and Rational Choice in Internet Abuses at Work, Info. & Mgmt. (published online September 2017), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378720616301562.

Cyber criminals use the Internet as a major platform to launch malware and social engineering attacks. Employees’ violation of Internet use policy (IUP) elevates a firm’s security risks from cyber-attacks. In the literature, such deviant behavior is generally considered to be the result of a cost-benefit calculus. However, this study shows that dispositional factors such as self-control and procedural justice moderate the cost-benefit calculus. We conclude that self-control and procedural justice need to be integrated with the Rational Choice Theory to better explain Internet abuses at work.

Lily Tsai, Minh Trinh & Shiyao Liu, The Role of Retributive Justice in Citizen Evaluations of Government: The Case of China (MIT Political Science Department Research Paper No. 2017-24, 2017), https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3038955.

In nondemocratic and hybrid regimes, citizens may perceive government authorities as legitimate when the government addresses citizen concerns about retributive justice by punishing wrongdoers and rule breakers, especially wrongdoers and rule breakers among government officials. Retributive justice thus plays an important role in citizens’ evaluation of government officials. Using three separate conjoint experiments in China, we found that citizens prefer local officials who punish lower level officials, even when experimentally conditioning on these officials’ performance on other important criteria such as economic growth, distributive justice and procedural justice. In two of these experiments, we employed an innovative parallel design for mediation analysis, and found that, in constructing their evaluations, citizens perceive officials who pursue retributive justice as excelling not only in competence but also in moral character.

Joe Iveson, Community Benefits Schemes for Onshore Wind Projects in the United Kingdom: Evaluating Communities’ Perceptions of Procedural Justice (June 2017) (unpublished MSc thesis, Utrecht University), https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/351756.

Community benefits schemes (CBS) are an essential part of the United Kingdom (UK) governmental policy which aims to stimulate public support for onshore wind projects, which allow communities to share in the economics benefits associated with these. However, the development and implementation of CBS by project developers has been criticised, with claims of bribery mooted by scholars and communities alike. Accordingly, this research took a procedural justice perspective and argued that should the development and implementation of CBS pertain more closely to procedural justice ideals then communities would be more likely to perceive the development and implementation of CBS as fair, thus resulting in the greater public acceptancy of onshore wind projects. Using conditions from Leventhal and Thibaut and Walker, procedural justice was conceptualised and an analytical framework to evaluate the levels of perceived procedural justice proliferated by CBS was designed. The research utilised interviews with, and surveys completed by representatives of communities, to come to the understanding that CBS can be successful in stimulating public support for onshore wind projects. However, an alarming paradox was discovered. On the one hand, the community representatives reported no evidence of bribery; conversely, a number of them admitted that the CBS had exerted a significant impact on community members’ opinions regarding the onshore wind projects. Therefore, it is suggested that the very motivations behind CBS can be considered deviant, this despite many communities not experiencing them in this way. Accordingly, it is suggested that Renewable UK and the UK Government take the necessary actions to formalise CBS within UK law, thus empowering communities. Furthermore, it is also advised that CBS be marketed in such a way that communities are clear that payments are compensation for the negative effects of onshore wind projects or other types of developments which may in the future also utilise CBS.

Chad JR Walker, Wind Energy Policy, Development, and Justice in Ontario and Nova Scotia, Canada: A Comparison of Technocratic and Community-Based Siting Processes (August 2017) (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Western Ontario), http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/etd/4696/.

This thesis primarily examines wind energy policy and development through the lens of local acceptance and environmental justice in Ontario and Nova Scotia, Canada. It has been argued that encouraging more participatory planning alongside introducing financial benefits, can powerfully shape local responses. With little in the Canadian context to substantiate this claim, this dissertation attempts to fill a gap in the literature. The thesis also investigates a methodological question within the social scientific, mixed method literature. Using a small subset of this literature associated with wind energy development, research was undertaken to examine potential relationships between research design and method dominance. Results from Study 1—which looked at distributive justice and wind energy development highlight stark differences between Ontario and Nova Scotia in terms of perceptions of local benefits.

Qualitative and quantitative findings point to the strength of traditional benefit sharing initiatives but also more novel forms of benefit structures. Study 2 examined local residents’ experiences of planning processes and found much stronger levels of procedural justice in Nova Scotia. It also suggested that local opposition to wind turbines in Ontario was intertwined with procedural injustice including few opportunities to participate. There were low levels of ‘the ability to affect change’—an idea that was common to both provinces. The findings from the methodological investigation (Study 3) suggest there is little evidence in the domain that qualitative methods are being heavily marginalized, yet there is some indication that research design may influence method priority. Some of the key theoretical contributions relate to the advancement of the resident-centered viewpoint, and the application of Arnstein’s ladder of citizen participation. . . . Practical contributions, including public engagement through the media, as well the publication of a ‘Toolkit’ and the hosting of a stakeholder workshop rounded out the research.

Sellywati Mohd Faizal et al., Perception on Justice, Trust and Tax Compliance Behavior in Malaysia, Kasetsart J. Soc. Sci. (published online August 2017), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2452315117303752.

The relationship between justice and trust with tax compliance behavior in Malaysia was studied. Previous studies have acknowledged the perception that justice does have an impact on tax compliance. This study distinguishes justice into procedural justice, distributive justice, and retributive justice. Therefore, this study examined the effect of these three types of justice on tax compliance. Trust also influences the act of tax compliance and it also has a relationship to the element of justice. Perceptions from individual taxpayers were gathered using questionnaires from previous studies. The findings suggest only procedural justice and trust affect tax compliance and procedural justice was positively and significantly correlated to trust. However, trust does not mediate the relationship between justice and compliance. This research will contribute to the tax literature with widened scope on justice in Malaysia.

Now in Print

These articles have been listed in past quarterly reports as forthcoming but have recently been published in print. This section also includes older articles that have just recently come to our attention.

Brett Taylor, Center for Court Innovation, Lessons From Community Courts: Strategies on Criminal Justice Reform from a Defense Attorney (2016), http://www.courtinnovation.org/sites/default/files/documents/Lessons_From_Community_Courts.pdf.

Gabor Hera, The Relationship Between the Roma and the Police: A Roma Perspective, 27 Policing & Soc’y. 393 (2017), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10439463.2015.1067204.

Oluwagbenga Michael Akinlabi, Young People, Procedural Justice and Police Legitimacy in Nigeria, 27 Policing & Soc’y 419 (2017), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10439463.2015.1077836.

Zsolt Boda & Gergö Medve-Bálint, How Perceptions and Personal Contact Matter: The Individual-Level Determinants of Trust in Police in Hungary, 27 Policing & Soc’y 732 (2017), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10439463.2015.1053479.

Jennifer L. Schulenberg et al., An Application of Procedural Justice to Stakeholder Perspectives: Examining Police Legitimacy and Public Trust in Police Complaints Systems, 27 Policing & Soc’y 779 (2017), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10439463.2015.1102252.

Elise Sargeant, Policing and Collective Efficacy: The Relative Importance of Police Effectiveness, Procedural Justice and the Obligation to Obey Police, 27 Policing &

Soc’y 927 (2017), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10439463.2015.1122008.

Tammy Rinehart Kochel, Legitimacy Judgments in Neighborhood Context: Antecedents in “Good” Versus “Bad” Neighborhoods, 40 Policing 529 (2017), http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2016-0066.

Sebastian Roché & Guillaume Roux, The “Silver Bullet” to Good Policing: A Mirage. An Analysis of the Effects of Political Ideology and Ethnic Identity on Procedural Justice, 40 Policing 514 (2017), http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2016-0073.

Kristina Murphy, Natasha Madon & Adrian Cherney, Promoting Muslims’ Cooperation with Police in Counter-Terrorism: The Interaction Between Procedural Justice, Police Legitimacy and Law Legitimacy, 40 Policing 544 (2017), http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2016-0069.

John D. McCluskey & Michael Reisig, Explaining Procedural Justice During Police-Suspect Encounters: A Systematic Social Observation Study, 40 Policing 574 (2017), http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2016-0087.

Anjuli Van Damme, How to Measure Procedurally (Un)just Behavior During Police–Citizen Interactions, 40 Policing 587 (2017), http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2016-0140.

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Amanda Konradi, Can Justice Be Served on Campus? An Examination of Due Process and Victim Protection Policies in the Campus Adjudication of Sexual Assault in Maryland, 41 Humanity & Soc’y 373 (2017), http://has.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/06/13/0160597616651657.abstract.

Kyle McLean, Ethnic Identity, Procedural Justice, and Offending: Does Procedural Justice Work the Same for Everyone? 63 Crim. & Delinquency 1314 (2017), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0011128715620429.

Scott E. Wolfe & Kyle McLean, Procedural Injustice, Risky Lifestyles, and Violent Victimization, 63 Crime & Delinquency 1383 (2017), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0011128716640292.

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