Quarterly Research Report

New Developments in Procedural Fairness: Spring 2017 Quarterly Report

This report, edited by Justine Greve, M.A., Kansas Court of Appeals and Shelley Spacek Miller, J.D., National Center for State Courts, highlights the most notable procedural fairness scholarship released over the past quarter. Each quarterly issue will also include a listing of other articles that are of particular relevance to procedural fairness and the courts. Recent news and events, if available, complete the report. Articles that are not yet in print but available on the publishers website are identified with 'published online,' and articles available via open source are denoted by a double asterisk. A pdf version of this issue can also be found here.

General Research

Todd Lucas et al., When Does Priming Justice Promote Forgiveness? On the Importance of Distributive and Procedural Justice for Self and Others, J. Positive Psychol. (published online March 2017), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17439760.2017.1303533.

Two studies show that thinking about justice can both enhance and impede forgiveness, depending on whether thoughts about distributive and procedural justice for self and others are activated. In Study 1 (n = 197), participants expressed more forgiveness towards a prior transgressor when primed to think about justice for self or procedural justice for others, and less forgiveness when primed to think about distributive justice for others. Study 2 (n = 231) used an alternate priming method and replicated these effects by inducing an interpersonal transgression and measuring forgiveness intentions, emotions and behavior. Study 2 also showed that priming justice influences forgiveness especially when the perceived severity of an interpersonal offense is high. The current research shows that activating justice cognitions can enhance or impinge on forgiveness in predictable ways. We discuss contributions to emerging justice theory, potential implications, and future directions.

Juliana D. Lilly & Kamphol Wipawayangkool, When Fair Procedures Don’t Work: A Self-Threat Model of Procedural Justice, Current Psychol. (published online January 2017), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12144-016-9555-7.

Why do individuals sometimes claim a decision is unfair when the decision process is considered fair by socially accepted standards? Past research on the interaction pattern between procedural and distributive justice generally supports the fair process effect, the idea that fair procedures ameliorate negative reactions to unfavorable decision outcomes. However, some research suggests that self-relevant variables play a role in altering the interaction pattern. Using elements of attribution theory, specifically external self-serving bias and self-threat, with group identification, we develop a new self-threat model of procedural justice. Specifically, we hypothesize that when individuals experience self-threat (threat to the ego or self-concept) as a result of a decision outcome, the tendency to protect the self by engaging in externalized attributions may result in lower perceptions of fairness and organizational justice regardless of whether the decision process is fair. Results indicate that group identification is negatively related to external self-serving bias, but is not significantly related to perceptions of self-threat. However, external self-serving bias and perceptions of self-threat are negatively related to perceptions of procedural justice. The results may help explain why individuals who have low group identification or who feel undervalued by society, such as minorities or people with disabilities, may be more likely to react negatively to an unfavorable outcome determined by fair procedures.

Sofie Marien & Hannah Werner, Do People Who Are Treated Fair Play It Fair? Testing Procedural Fairness Theory Cross-Nationally, prepared for presentation at the “24-hour Political Science Conference” (June 2-3, 2016), https://lirias.kuleuven.be/handle/123456789/577422.

Procedural fairness has been put forth as one of the key features of legitimate, well-functioning, stable societies. It is argued that perceptions of procedural fairness encourage people to accept and follow political decisions voluntarily (Doherty & Wolak, 2012). Recently, Tyler (2011) argued that legitimate procedures even motivate people to help political institutions enforce these decisions. However, to date empirical research on the effect of procedural fairness on citizens’ attitudes and behavior is scarce. Using the most recent wave of the European Social survey (2010-2011; N=52,444) and Multilevel Structural Equation techniques, we break new ground on this question by investigating how fair treatment by the police shapes the willingness to follow the law and cooperate with this institution in 27 countries. Further we show that the fairness effect is not equal across countries but depends on the prevalence of corruption in a country. In countries with a low level of corruption fair treatment plays a much larger role in shaping trust and compliant and cooperative attitudes than in countries with high levels of corruption. 

Compliance and Cooperation 

Courts and Dispute Resolution

Rebecca E. Hollander-Blumoff, Fairness Beyond the Adversary System: Procedural Justice Norms for Legal Negotiation, 85 Fordham L. Rev. 101 (2017), https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2938765.

There are far fewer trials now than ever before. The shift from a system of public, adversarial, and ordered civil dispute resolution to a set of private, negotiated, and ad hoc resolutions has raised serious concerns about our enforcement of the laws and our understanding of legal outcomes. Law and legal rules are our society’s expression of justice; if we want outcomes of legal disputes to comport with justice, what does the absence of trials tell us about the optimal nature of negotiated justice? . . . Recent research has suggested an important role for procedural justice in shaping responses to negotiated outcomes in legal disputes. But shifting the burden of fair process from a neutral third party such as a judge or arbitrator onto lawyers creates an ethical challenge for attorneys. Should lawyers be responsible for creating a fair process for negotiating parties? And, if so, how can they provide a fair process in negotiated settlement while retaining their role as zealous advocates in an adversary system? Part I of this Article provides background on procedural justice and its relationship to negotiation. Part II then discusses the results of a recent empirical study on the factors that help shape perceptions of procedural justice in the negotiation setting. Lastly, Part III explores the strategic and ethical implications of these results for the practicing lawyer in settlement negotiations.

Youyang Hou et al., Factors in Fairness and Emotion in Online Case Resolution Systems, prepared for presentation at the AMC CHI Conference (May 6-11, 2017), https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Youyang_Hou/publication/313243278_Factors_in_Fairness_and_Emotion_in_Online_Case_Resolution_Systems/links/5893bb08a6fdcc45530c2fdd/Factors-in-Fairness-and-Emotion-in-Online-Case-Resolution-Systems.pdf.

Courts are increasingly adopting online information and communication technology, creating a need to consider the potential consequences of these tools for the justice system. Using survey responses from 209 litigants who had recently used an online case resolution system, we investigate factors that influenced litigants’ experiences of fairness and emotional feelings toward court officials. Our results show that ease of using the online case resolution system, the outcome of the case, and a litigant’s perceptions of procedural justice are positively associated both with whether the litigant views the process as fair and whether the litigant ultimately feels positive emotions toward court officials. We also analyze the online explanations litigants offer in their arguments to courts and litigant answers to an open-ended question about their court experiences, and highlight design and practical implications for online systems seeking to improve access to justice.

Cassandra A. Atkin-Plunk, Jennifer H. Peck & Gaylene S. Armstrong, Do Race and Ethnicity Matter? An Examination of Racial/Ethnic Differences in Perceptions of Procedural Justice and Recidivism Among Problem-Solving Court Clients, Race & Just. (published online February 2017), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/2153368717691800.

Over the years, a distinct body of research has emerged that examines procedural justice in problem-solving courts. However, there is virtually no research to date on racial and ethnic differences in perceptions of procedural justice among problem-solving court clients. The present study seeks to understand the complexities of judicial procedural justice and race/ethnicity within problem-solving courts. Using a convenience sample of 132 clients from two problem-solving courts in a southern state, this study addresses a void in the literature by examining the influence of race/ethnicity on perceptions of procedural justice as well as the impact of race/ethnicity and procedural justice on clients’ likelihood of recidivism. Results suggest that Black problem-solving court clients’ have significantly lower perceptions of procedural justice, while also having a lower likelihood of recidivism. Perceptions of procedural justice did not influence recidivism outcomes. Policy implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. 


New Thinking and Interpretations

William J. Howe III & Jeffrey E. Hall, Oregon's Informal Domestic Relations Trial: A New Tool to Efficiently and Fairly Manage Family Court Trials, 55 Fam. Ct. Rev. 70 (2017), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/fcre.12263/full.

The Informal Domestic Relations Trial (IDRT) process adopted by the Deschutes County, Oregon, Circuit Court is described, evaluated, and compared to simplified family law procedural rules of other jurisdictions. The IDRT process has been created by local court rule, and will soon be adopted statewide in Oregon. The IDRT rule allows parties to choose a simplified trial or hearing format where the parties speak directly to the judge with no direct or cross-examination, nonparty witnesses are limited to experts, the traditional rules of evidence are waived, and all exhibits offered by the parties are admitted. IDRT cases are typically docketed more quickly than traditional trials; last just a couple of hours; and decisions are rendered promptly, usually the day of the hearing or trial. The court retains jurisdiction to modify the process as fairness requires and to divert cases where domestic violence or other reasons render IDRT inappropriate.



Matthew S. Crow, Community Perceptions of Police Body-Worn Cameras: The Impact of Views on Fairness, Fear, Performance, and Privacy, 44 Crim. Just. & Behav. 589 (2017), http://journals.sagepub.com/toc/cjbb/44/4.

Despite relatively little extant research, efforts to expand the use of body-worn cameras (BWCs) in policing are increasing. Although recent research suggests positive impacts of BWCs on reducing police use-of-force and citizen complaints, little is known about community members’ perceptions of BWCs. The current study examined perceptions of residents of two Florida counties and found a large majority of respondents supported the use of BWCs. Structural equation modeling was utilized to examine factors that influence views of BWCs. Findings indicate that positive perceptions of police performance and more police interaction were associated with greater perceived benefits of BWCs, whereas concerns about the privacy reduced perceived BWC benefits. Respondents’ views of procedural fairness and crime concern were indirectly related to perceptions of BWC benefits. Non-White and younger respondents were indirectly less likely to perceive benefits. Implications of these findings and future directions for research are discussed.

Natasha S. Madon, Kristina Murphy & Elise Sargeant, Promoting Police Legitimacy Among Disengaged Minority Groups: Does Procedural Justice Matter More? Criminology & Crim. Just. (published online February 2017), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1748895817692849.

Procedural justice is known to enhance perceptions of police legitimacy. Studies show that procedural justice may be less effective for some individuals and groups, while others show it to be more effective. This study investigates the contingency of the procedural justice effect and considers the effectiveness of procedural justice for certain individuals through the concept of disengagement. Utilizing a survey of 1480 ethnic minority group members, the study tests whether or not disengagement moderates the effect of procedural justice on perceptions of police legitimacy. As expected, we find procedural justice is linked to enhanced perceptions of police legitimacy, while disengagement is associated with reduced perceptions of legitimacy. Interestingly, the study finds that procedural justice is more effective for building legitimacy for ethnic minority respondents who report being highly disengaged from police. These findings highlight how police might be able to improve perceptions of their legitimacy among disaffected minority communities.

Nancy La Vigne, Jocelyn Fontaine & Anamika Dwivedi, Urban Institute Justice Policy Center, How Do People In High-Crime, Low-Income Communities View The Police? (2017), http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/88476/how_do_people_in_high-crime_view_the_police.pdf.

This research brief aims to elevate the experiences, views, and attitudes of residents often underrepresented in research on perceptions of law enforcement—people living in high-crime neighborhoods with concentrated disadvantage. Using a unique purposive sampling methodology to represent residents in communities with the most tenuous relationships with law enforcement, we conducted in-person surveys in partnership with local organizations in six cities: Birmingham, Alabama; Fort Worth, Texas; Gary, Indiana; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Stockton, California. The purpose of these surveys was to collect baseline data on residents’ views of police as part of an Urban Institute (Urban) evaluation of the National Initiative on Building Community Trust and Justice (National Initiative). But our findings serve more than an evaluation function, offering insights into the nature of community-police relations in high-crime, high-poverty neighborhoods and highlight opportunities for improvement. Our research shows that although variations exist across the six cities, respondents’ perceptions of police across measures of legitimacy, procedural justice, racial bias, relatability to police, and applied principles of community policing, on average, are extremely negative. However, residents also expressed a firm belief in and support for the law and a willingness to partner with police in public safety efforts. The variation in responses by city suggests that each city’s local context, including departmental policies and policing approaches, likely influence perceptions.

Ian Thompson, The Impact of Procedural Justice Training on First Year Constables’ Interactions with Citizens: A Randomized Controlled Trial (2016) (unpublished master’s thesis, Fitzwilliam College), http://www.crim.cam.ac.uk/alumni/theses/Ian%20Thompson.pdf.

Procedural justice (PJ) training for police has previously involved changing officer attitudes and behaviors by teaching officers about procedural justice, its benefits (Rosenbaum & Lawrence 2011; Skogan et al. 2015), the use of a procedural justice script during an interaction (Mazerolle et al. 2013), and by providing interpersonal skills training as a means of changing officer behavior (Wheller et al. 2013). This research utilizes a unique procedural justice knowledge and skills-based training program designed to provide officers with information about the desirability of procedural justice combined with a skill set that enables officers to build a range of abilities for use in the practical application of procedural justice in the everyday operational environment. It is the first to examine the effectiveness of a procedural justice training program under randomized controlled trial (RCT) conditions through real-time mentor officer observations. In June 2016, 56 graduating police officers were matched into pairs with one from each pair randomly selected to undergo a day and a half training program. Over the next eight weeks each of these 56 officers were rated in their use of procedural justice by their mentor training officer for each police-public interaction they conducted. Research data was obtained using three validated survey instruments with excellent response rates (>96%) and a purpose-designed electronic rating tool. The research findings confirmed that the training had a significant positive effect on two variables immediately after the intervention, though when measured eight weeks after the intervention the effect had decayed. These results were at the statistically significant level (p=0.005) with medium effect sizes. Analysis of the total number of interactions conducted also found that though there were no significant differences in how First Year Constables (FYC) dealt with different types of incidents, when aggregated the intervention FYC group acted in a more procedurally just way than the 3 control group. This finding is important as it relates to changes in behavior in the experimental group rather than attitudinal changes. Overall, police who undertook the training were more procedurally just than those who didn’t. The research argues for the introduction of this program to police recruit training to embed procedural justice as a philosophy and business as usual.

Daniel S. Lawrence, Thomas E. Christoff & Justin H. Escamilla, Predicting Procedural Justice Behavior: Examining Communication and Personality, 40 Policing 141 (2017), http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2016-0107.

Purpose: Law enforcement agencies have historically used psychological examinations, in addition to other methods, to screen candidates out of the applicant pool. However, agencies could be better served by ensuring recruits are predisposed to the expected behaviors and qualities that are required as part of community-oriented and respectful policing. The purpose of this paper is to provide an initial look into what officer-level characteristics might lead to improved treatment in police-community interactions (PCIs). Characteristics under review include communication styles and personality dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach: Data come from the National Police Research Platform’s longitudinal recruit study and its PCI survey. Community members were surveyed about their interactions with officers involved in the study. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze these two-level data.

Findings: The findings suggest that certain officer-level characteristics were associated with higher perceptions of procedurally just behavior. Specifically, officers with higher levels of empathy and lower levels of neuroticism scored higher on both the officer’s quality of treatment (QT) and quality of decision making toward the community member. Additional to those dimensions, officers with increased emotional control received higher scores on their QT.

Originality/value: These findings have important implications for identifying and measuring new characteristics to be used in police hiring procedures. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first instance where personality dimensions and communications styles have been used to predict law enforcement officers’ procedural justice behaviors in the field.

Dennis P. Rosenbaum et al., The Police-Community Interaction Survey: Measuring Police Performance in New Ways, 40 Policing 112 (2017), http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2016-0119.

Purpose: There is widespread interest in moving beyond crime statistics to measure police performance in new ways, especially the quality of police-community interactions that influence police legitimacy and public trust. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Police-Community Interaction Survey (PCIS) developed by the National Police Research Platform.

Design/methodology/approach: The PCIS collected data from 53 police agencies around the USA in 2013-2014. The psychometric properties of the constructs measured are presented. This study also offers a preliminary test of the effects of an alternatively specified and expanded procedural justice model on willingness to cooperate with the police, mediated through perceptions of officer trustworthiness.

Findings: Scales were developed with good reliability and validity that measure various aspects of the police-community interactions. The authors find evidence that empathy is an important addition to the procedural justice model, and that the effects of procedural justice on willingness to cooperate with the police are partially mediated through perceptions of officer trustworthiness.

Originality/value: This is the first attempt to validate the measurement of police-community interactions on a large scale in the USA with policy implications at the local and national levels. The findings can help local police agencies incorporate new performance metrics at the individual, group, and agency levels. Nationally, the science of policing can be advanced by specifying the antecedents and consequences of respectful and empathic actions, including behavior that strengthens police-community relations.

Neil Wain, Barak Ariel & Justice Tankebe, The Collateral Consequences of GPS-LED Supervision in Hot Spots Policing, Police Prac. & Res. (published online January 2017), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15614263.2016.1277146.

Hot spots policing is popular, yet little is known about officer receptivity to the tactic and its impact on internal procedural justice, organizational commitment, and self-legitimacy. The nature of the tactic means that officers must relinquish their discretionary powers so that they can be directed to crime and disorder locations at specific times and for regimented durations. This loss of ‘spatiotemporal autonomy’ is exacerbated by technological tracking devices. We examined the receptivity of British officers to hot spots patrols, where the deployment was tracked with individual GPS trackers, compared to parallel patrols without hot spots policing or tracking. In contrast to the comparison group, officers in hot spots disliked the routinization of their shifts; regimented patrols were detrimental for internal procedural justice and organizational commitment. The ramifications of the introduction of GPS-enabled systems include certain tracking of officers and their compliance, such as a Taylorist time and motion study. While hot spots policing remains an effective tactic, questions about sustainability may be raised if officers’ expectations, attitudes and receptivity are not managed.

Megan Eileen Collins, Understanding the Procedural Justice Implications of Macro-Level Police Policies: Evidence from Longitudinal Police and Juvenile Offender Data (2016) (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland), http://drum.lib.umd.edu/handle/1903/18966.

In response to a series of high profile conflicts between police and the communities they serve, President Obama’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing recommended that law enforcement agencies adopt procedural justice as a guiding principle to inform their policies. While there is general agreement about the importance of procedural justice in shaping an individual’s view of their encounters with police, it remains unclear how the many police policies that are already in place affect citizens’ perceptions of police procedural justice. This dissertation seeks to understand how a common police policy—sending more officers to the areas with the most crime—impacts perceptions of procedural justice, so that policies formed with the goal of enhancing perceptions of procedural justice might be better informed. This study exploits quasi-experimental conditions that resulted from the selective implementation of the Philadelphia Police Department’s 2008 Crime Fighting Strategy (CFS) in only nine of their twenty-three police districts. In doing so, the effect of sending more police officers to high crime areas on perceptions of police procedural justice can be estimated. While many have sought to estimate the impact of more police on offending and delinquency externalities, this particular question has not yet been researched. Further, this research focuses specifically on the perceptions of serious adolescent offenders; this is critical, as offenders were ostensibly the intended target of the CFS, many of whom experience frequent and high stakes interactions with police. Findings indicate that serious adolescent offenders’ perceptions of procedural justice based on personal experiences do not operate in tandem with perceptions based on vicarious experiences, with the two measures displaying opposite signs when correlations with district level crime and socio-economic factors were estimated. The CFS did not appear to influence significant changes in adolescents’ perceptions of procedural justice when the treatment and control districts were compared, or when within-individual changes were estimated. Further, perceptions did not necessarily update as a function of moving from one district to another, as many of the individuals who remained in a single district also updated their perceptions. Implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.

Ben Bradford, Jonathan Jackson & Mike Hough, Ethnicity, Group Position and Police Legitimacy: Early Findings from the European Social Survey (unpublished working paper, Economic and Social Research Council grant number ES/L011611/1, 2017), https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jonathan_Jackson3/publication/312229905_Ethnicity_legitimacy_and_modes_of_incorporation_early_findings_from_the_European_Social_Survey'/links/587a63b308ae9a860fe892cc.pdf.

In this chapter we draw on these ideas to consider the association between ethnic minority status and police legitimacy across 27 European countries. Considering social, legal and economic aspects of incorporation, we explore how people’s experiences and circumstances may influence their relationships with the police. Pooling data from the 27 countries, we fit a series of joint models. Estimating the average statistical effects of individual-level variables that are themselves averaged across the 27 countries, we focus on some of the factors that predict legitimacy judgements of minority (and majority) group members across multiple jurisdictions, rather than those which may or may not be important within one particular culture or country (a task we leave for another study). We do not assess whether the ‘modes of incorporation’ of different minority groups helps to explain heterogeneity in legitimacy judgements across different minority groups. We rather assess the importance of ‘modes of incorporation’ in explaining variation in legitimacy and we test whether accounting for these factors reduces the statistical effect of a dichotomous majority versus minority indicator on legitimacy.

Tammy Rinehart Kochel, Explaining Racial Differences in Ferguson’s Impact on Local Residents’ Trust and Perceived Legitimacy: Policy Implications for Police, Crim. Just. Pol’y Rev. (published online January 2017), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0887403416684923.

Public support and trust are critical to effective democratic policing, but scholars have suggested police in the United States may be experiencing a legitimacy crisis. High-profile police-involved shootings like those which have happened over the last 2 years can have negative consequences. This study assesses the consequences of the Ferguson, Missouri unrest and police response on local residents’ views. A panel survey of St Louis County, Missouri residents conducted before and after the police shooting of Michael Brown examines the effects on procedural justice and trust, police legitimacy, and willingness to cooperate with police. Results reveal a significantly different effect on African American versus non-Black residents. African Americans’ views significantly declined while non-Black residents’ perceptions were stable. Qualitative data are used to apply the conflict/group position and accumulated experience theories to explain racial disparities and are used as a basis to offer strategies to improve confidence and trust in police.

Tammy Rinehart Kochel & David Weisburd, Assessing Community Consequences of Implementing Hot Spots Policing in Residential Areas: Findings from a Randomized Field Trial, J. Experimental Criminology (published online February 2017), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11292-017-9283-5.

Objectives: This paper reports on the results of an experiment examining the community impact of collaborative problem solving versus directed patrol hot spots policing approaches relative to standard policing practices. The focus is the impact on community perceptions of police.

Methods: We randomly assigned 71 crime hot spots to receive problem solving, directed patrol, or standard police practices. The data are a panel survey of St. Louis County, MO, hot spots residents before the treatment, immediately following treatment, and 6 to 9 months later. Applying mixed effects regression, we assessed the impact on residents’ perceptions of police abuse, procedural justice and trust, police legitimacy, and willingness to cooperate with police.

Results: The residents receiving directed patrol were most impacted, experiencing depleted growth in procedural justice and trust relative to standard practice residents and nonsignificant declines in police legitimacy immediately following the treatment period. However, in both cases, views recover in the long term, after treatment ends. Problem-solving residents did not experience significant backfire effects. There was no increase in perceived police abuse in the hot spots conditions. Both treatment group residents, in the long term, were more willing to cooperate with police.

Conclusions: Though there is strong evidence that hot spots policing is effective in reducing crime, it has been criticized as negatively impacting citizen evaluations of police legitimacy, and leading to heightened perceptions of police abuse. However, our results suggest that there is no long-term harm to public opinion by implementing problem solving or temporarily implementing directed patrol in hot spots.

Alistair Fildes, Kristina Murphy & Louise Porter, Police Officer Procedural Justice Self-Assessments: Do They Change Across Recruit Training and Operational Experience? Policing & Soc’y (published online February 2017), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10439463.2017.1290089.

With the increased focus on applying procedural justice into policing practice, a small number of studies have examined officer attitudes to procedural justice. These studies have measured a diverse range of attitudinal concepts – from officers’ alignment to procedural justice principles, to the perceived effectiveness of the principles in obtaining compliance from the public. A concept of particular interest is officers’ sense of themselves as acting in a procedurally just manner. As police work is characterized by a high degree of discretion in how officers interact with the public, measuring how such procedural justice self-assessments change over time might indicate hindrances to the longer term uptake of procedural justice. Additionally, understanding what factors influence positive procedural justice self-assessments will assist police organizations in developing officers who identify as procedurally just. This study explores how officers’ procedural justice self-assessments change through recruit training and after officers have become operational. Using longitudinal survey data from Queensland Police recruits collected at the beginning of recruit training (n = 501), at the end of training six months later (n = 331), and after one year of operational experience (n = 152), this study finds that recruits’ procedural justice self-assessments decrease substantially by the end of training, but change little after officers become operational. Further, positive procedural justice self-assessments are predicted predominantly by self-assessed interpersonal skills more so than other attitudinal or demographic measures. The findings suggest that if police organizations wish to develop procedurally just officers, efforts should be concentrated toward improving recruits’ interpersonal skills when dealing with the public.

Shana M. Mell, The Role of Procedural Justice Within Police-Citizen Contacts in Explaining Citizen Behaviors and Other Outcomes (2016) (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University), http://scholarscompass.vcu.edu/etd/4603/?utm_source=scholarscompass.vcu.edu%2Fetd%2F4603&utm_medium=PDF&utm_campaign=PDFCoverPages.

American policing is shaped by an array of challenges. Police are expected to address crime and engage the community, yet police are held to higher expectations of accountability, effectiveness, and efficiency than ever before. Police legitimacy is the ability of the police to exercise their authority in the course of maintaining order, resolving conflicts, and solving problems (PERF, 2014). The procedural justice and police legitimacy literature suggest that by exhibiting procedurally just behaviors within police-citizen encounters, officers are considered legitimate by the public (PERF, 2014; Tyler, 2004, Tyler & Jackson, 2012).

This study examines procedural justice through systematic observations of police-citizen encounters recorded by body worn cameras in one mid-Atlantic police agency. The four elements of procedural justice (participation, neutrality, dignity and respect, and trustworthiness) are assessed to examine police behavior and its outcomes. The research questions concern how police acting in procedurally just ways may influence citizen behaviors.

Descriptive statistics indicate high levels of procedural justice. Regression analyses suggest that procedural justice may predict positive citizen behaviors within police-citizen encounters. This study highlights the significance of procedural justice as an antecedent to police legitimacy and offers a new mode of observation: body worn camera footage.

Natalija Lukić et al., Trust in Police by Serbian and Slovenian Law Students: A Comparative Perspective, 8 Varstvoslovje (J. Crim. Just. & Security) 418 (2016), http://search.proquest.com/openview/1fca8af03a1ac419be635a065cae8c12/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=1336359.

Purpose: Based on past studies and cognitions about legitimacy and related concepts, the paper presents law students’ perceptions of trust in police and policing in Serbia and Slovenia, analysing data from a web survey conducted in autumn 2012 and spring 2013.

Design/Methods/Approach: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a web survey conducted by Meško and colleagues in 2013 in Serbia and Slovenia using descriptive and multivariate statistical methods (factor analysis, t-test and regression analysis).

Findings: The findings indicate that the law students generally question their willingness to comply with laws and cooperate with the police. The results reveal a slightly more positive perception of police legitimacy and its correlates by the Slovenian law students than their Serbian counterparts. Similar, police authority, trust in police, procedural justice and police effectiveness are more positively perceived in Slovenia.

Xochitl Escutia, Body-Worn Cameras, Procedural Justice, and Police Legitimacy (December 2016) (unpublished M.S. thesis, California State University, Long Beach), http://search.proquest.com/openview/4b7c2ee2e4413e445a23f1f3efe551cf/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y.

As technology advances, law enforcement agencies continue to implement new strategies to effectively control crime and preserve social order. Over the past 2 years, several key events have shifted public concerns from crime control to police-community relations. In an effort to improve these relations and increase police legitimacy, many police agencies have recently implemented body-worn cameras. These devices have several presumed advantages, including the enhancement of procedural justice practices. Research on procedural justice links the quality of treatment and quality of officer decision-making to police legitimacy and higher levels of citizen satisfaction. Thus, this study analyzes how the application of body-worn cameras affects perceptions of procedural justice and citizen satisfaction. Using data collected from community member surveys, results show that fair officer treatment towards community members and impartial officer decision-making practices positively impact police interactions. Such practices combined with body-worn cameras can increase citizen satisfaction.


New Thinking and Interpretations

Tom Tyler, Procedural Justice and Policing: A Rush to Judgment? 13 Ann. Rev. L. & Soc. Sci. (2017), http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-110316-113318.

Within policing research there is currently little research examining the role of procedural justice in shaping legitimacy and considering their joint role in shaping compliance. However, large literatures in social psychology and management make a plausible case for the value of applying this model to policing. These literatures suggest that it is likely that (a) the practices of the police can be crafted to raise perceptions of procedural justice, (b) police training can alter officer behavior, and (c) redesigning police organizations internally can motivate their members to treat community members more fairly. A focus on legitimacy highlights the virtues of consensual models of policing. Consensual models are found to motivate public cooperation in fighting crime and to heighten identification with and engagement in communities. Consequently, legitimacy is the most promising framework for discussing changing the goals of policing and moving from a police force model to a police service model.

Victims and Offenders

Adam Fine et al., Is the Effect of Justice System Attitudes on Recidivism Stable After Youths’ First Arrest? Race and Legal Socialization Among First-Time Youth Offenders, 41 Law & Hum. Behav. 146 (2017), http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/lhb/41/2/146/.

Youth who hold negative attitudes toward the justice system are more likely to engage in crime. It is particularly important to study attitudes early in someone’s criminal career when they may still be open to change. To date, however, there has been no empirical test assessing whether the relation between attitudes and behavior changes after a first arrest. Using a sample of 1,216 first-time, male, juvenile offenders from the Crossroads Study, the present study explored: (a) racial/ethnic differences in the longitudinal patterns of youths’ attitudes; and (b) reciprocal associations between youths’ attitudes and both their offending behavior and rearrests in the 2.5 years after their first arrest. The results indicated that White youths’ attitudes remained largely stable, Black youths’ attitudes became more negative, and Latino youths’ attitudes became more negative but only among Latino youth who reoffended. Although the results indicated that youths’ attitudes were related to both offending and rearrest, the bidirectional relation between attitudes and offending weakened across time. After 2.5 years after their first arrest, attitudes no longer predicted offending or rearrests. These novel findings suggest that a youth’s first contact is likely the most impactful. When it comes to young offenders’ interactions with the justice system, first impressions matter.

A. Pemberton, P.G.M. Aarten & E. Mulder, Beyond Retribution, Restoration and Procedural Justice: The Big Two of Communion and Agency in Victims’ Perspectives on Justice, Psychol. Crime & L. (published online March 2017), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1068316X.2017.1298760.

Victims’ perspectives on justice in the aftermath of crime are a key victimological topic. The main justice concepts that have received scholarly victimological attention are retributive justice, value restoration and procedural justice. In this paper, we argue that the so-called Big Two framework – agency and communion – can further help us understand victims’ experiences with justice. Agency refers to a person striving for individuality, while communion refers to the participation of the individual in and connection with a group. According to the framework outlined in this paper, we argue that victimization by crime involves an impaired sense of agency and communion, and justice can be viewed as an attempt to repair both these dimensions. Retributive justice is a prominent means to repair agency, but other options to do so are also open to the victim. A similar observation can be made about value restoration with respect to communion. Acknowledging this can be of particular importance in cases where no offender is apprehended. As to procedural justice, the framework emphasizes the need to distinguish process participation as a means to re-establish agency from participation to re-establish communion with representatives of society.


Prison and Inmates

Gorazd Meško et al., Self-Legitimacy, Organisational Commitment and Commitment to Fair Treatment of Prisoners: An Empirical Study of Prison Officers in Slovenia, 25 Euro. J. Crime, Crim. L. & Crim. Just. 11 (2017), http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.1163/15718174-25012104.

Recent work on legitimacy within criminal justice systems have drawn attention to self-legitimacy; that is, criminal justice professionals’ own recognition of their entitlement to power. The evidence on this aspect of legitimacy remains sparse and mainly from police studies. We know almost nothing about the self-legitimacy of prison officers. This paper contributes to filling this gap, with an empirical focus on prison officers in Slovenia. Specifically, it explores the correlates of officer self-legitimacy and the implications of self-legitimacy for commitments to the rights of prisoners and to the organization. Results from multiple regression analyses show that quality of interpersonal relationships among officers, perceived audience legitimacy (that is, officers’ sense of their moral standing among prisoners), and distributive justice predicted self-legitimacy. Self-legitimacy was associated with increased commitment to fair treatment of prisoners but it was irrelevant to organizational commitment. The implications of these findings are discussed.

Daniel McCarthy & Ian Brunton-Smith, The Effect of Penal Legitimacy on Prisoners’ Postrelease Desistance, Crime & Delinquency (published online January 2017), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0011128716687291.

Studies of procedural justice and legitimacy have shown that where legal actors use formal rules in ways that are perceived to be fair and consistent by those policed, greater compliance with the law can be achieved. A number of studies have assessed how legitimacy and compliance are related using general population samples, but few have tested these links among offending groups. Drawing on data from a longitudinal survey of prisoners across England and Wales, we find that prisoners who perceive their experience of prison as legitimate are more likely to believe that they will desist from crime. However, despite the existence of desistance beliefs, these do not translate into similar effects of legitimacy on proven reconviction rates a year post release.


Business and Management

Kia Gluschkoff, Organisational Justice Protects Against the Negative Effect of Workplace Violence on Teachers’ Sleep: A Longitudinal Cohort Study, Occup. & Envir. Med. (published online March 2017), http://oem.bmj.com/content/early/2017/03/14/oemed-2016-104027.info.

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the longitudinal association of workplace violence with disturbed sleep and the moderating role of organizational justice (i.e., the extent to which employees are treated with fairness) in teaching.

Methods: We identified 4988 teachers participating in the Finnish Public Sector study who reported encountering violence at work. Disturbed sleep was measured in three waves with 2-year intervals: the wave preceding exposure to violence, the wave of exposure and the wave following the exposure. Data on procedural and interactional justice were obtained from the wave of exposure to violence. The associations were examined using repeated measures log-binomial regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations method, adjusting for gender and age.

Results: Exposure to violence was associated with an increase in disturbed sleep (RR 1.32 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.52)) that also persisted after the exposure (RR 1.26 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.48)). The increase was higher among teachers perceiving the managerial practices as relatively unfair (RR 1.46 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.09) and RR 1.59 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.42) for interactional and procedural justice, respectively). By contrast, working in high-justice conditions seemed to protect teachers from the negative effect of violence on sleep.

Conclusion: Our findings show an increase in sleep disturbances due to exposure to workplace violence in teaching. However, the extent to which teachers are treated with justice moderates this association. Although preventive measures for violence should be prioritized, resources aimed at promoting justice at schools can mitigate sleep problems associated with workplace violence.

Justin P. Brienza & D. Ramona Bobocel, Employee Age Alters the Effects of Justice on Emotional Exhaustion and Organizational Deviance, Frontiers Psychol. (published online March 2017), http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00479/full.

Fairness in the workplace attenuates a host of negative individual and organizational outcomes. However, research on the psychology of aging challenges the assumption that fairness operates similarly across different age groups. The current research explored how older workers, vis-à-vis younger workers, react to perceptions of fairness. Integrating socioemotional selectivity theory and the multiple needs theory of organizational justice, we generated novel predictions regarding the relations between perceptions of workplace justice, emotional exhaustion, and employee deviance. Specifically, we hypothesized and found that employee age moderates the negative relation between justice facets and deviance (Study 1) and emotional exhaustion (Study 2). We also found that emotional exhaustion mediates the differential effects of justice on deviance, and that this relation depends on employee age (Study 2). Relative to younger workers, older workers are more sensitive to informational and interpersonal justice; in contrast, relative to older workers, younger workers are more sensitive to distributive and procedural justice. The research supports and extends existing theory on organizational justice and on the psychology of aging. Moreover, it highlights the importance of considering employee age as a focal variable of interest in the study of justice processes, and in organizational research more generally.

Julie Cloutier et al., Understanding the Effect of Procedural Justice on Psychological Distress, Int’l J. Stress Mgmt. (published online March 2017), http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1034&context=ldi.

Studies on the effect of procedural justice on psychological distress present conflicting results. Drawing on instrumental and relational perspectives of justice, we test the hypothesis that the perception of procedural justice influences the level of workers’ psychological distress. Using a number of validated instruments to collected data from 659 workers in three call centers, we use OLS regressions and Hayes’ PROCESS tool to show that the perception of procedural justice has a direct, unique, and independent effect on psychological distress. The perception of procedural justice has no instrumental role, the key mechanism being the relational role, suggesting that perceived injustice influences psychological distress because it threatens self-esteem. Distributive justice perceptions (recognition, promotions, job security) are not associated with psychological distress, calling into question Siegrist’s model. Our findings suggest that perceived procedural justice provides workers better evidence of the extent to which they are valued and appreciated members of their organizations than do perceptions of distributive justice. The results highlight the greater need for workers to be valued and appreciated for who they are (consideration and esteem), rather than for what they do for their organization (distributive justice of rewards).

Samuel B. Harvey et al., Can Work Make You Mentally Ill? A Systematic Meta-Review of Work-Related Risk Factors for Common Mental Health Problems, 74 Occup. & Envir. Med. 301 (2017), http://oem.bmj.com/content/74/4/301.info.

It has been suggested that certain types of work may increase the risk of common mental disorders, but the exact nature of the relationship has been contentious. The aim of this paper is to conduct the first comprehensive systematic meta-review of the evidence linking work to the development of common mental health problems, specifically depression, anxiety and/or work-related stress and to consider how the risk factors identified may relate to each other. MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Embase, the Cochrane Collaboration and grey literature databases were systematically searched for review articles that examined work-based risk factors for common mental health problems. All included reviews were subjected to a quality appraisal. 37 review studies were identified, of which 7 were at least moderate quality. 3 broad categories of work-related factors were identified to explain how work may contribute to the development of depression and/or anxiety: imbalanced job design, occupational uncertainty and lack of value and respect in the workplace. Within these broad categories, there was moderate level evidence from multiple prospective studies that high job demands, low job control, high effort–reward imbalance, low relational justice, low procedural justice, role stress, bullying and low social support in the workplace are associated with a greater risk of developing common mental health problems. While methodological limitations continue to preclude more definitive statements on causation between work and mental disorders, there is now a range of promising targets for individual and organizational-level interventions aimed at minimizing mental health problems in the workplace.

Zhenpeng Luo, Einar Marnburg & Rob Law, Linking Leadership and Justice to Organizational Commitment: The Mediating Role of Collective Identity in the Hotel Industry, 29 Int’l J. Contemp. Hospitality Mgmt. (published online February 2017), http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1108/IJCHM-08-2015-0423.

Purpose: This study attempts to investigate the mediating role of collective identity in the relations among transformational leadership, procedural justice, and employee organizational commitment.

Design/methodology/approach: An empirical survey was conducted in 43 hotels in Mainland China with 585 valid responses. In addition to descriptive statistics and the test of the presence of common method bias, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test the validities and reliabilities of the variables; structural equation modeling and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test causal relations and the mediating effects of collective identity.

Findings: Results show that transformational leadership and procedural justice are good predictors of employee collective identity and organizational commitment. In addition to a strong impact on employee commitment, collective identity partially mediates the effects of transformational leadership and procedural justice on employee commitment.

Debjani Ghosh, Tomoki Sekiguchi & L. Gurunathan, Organizational Embeddedness as a Mediator Between Justice and In-Role Performance, 75 J. Bus. Res. 130 (2017), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0148296317300681.

Drawing on the conservation of resources (COR) theory, we theorize that organizational justice influences in-role performance by embedding employees into the organization. Using a sample of 236 employee-supervisor dyads from diverse industries in India, we found that organizational embeddedness mediated the relationship between distributive and procedural justice and in-role performance. We further found that the degree of association between the dimensions of organizational justice and the components of organizational embeddedness varied; procedural justice was a stronger predictor of the fit dimension than distributive justice was and distributive justice was a stronger predictor of the sacrifice dimension than procedural justice was. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.

Woocheol Kim & Jiwon Park, Examining Structural Relationships Between Work Engagement, Organizational Procedural Justice, Knowledge Sharing, and Innovative Work Behavior for Sustainable Organizations, 9 Sustainability 205 (2017), http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/9/2/205/htm.

On the basis of social exchange theory, this study posited the important role that employee work engagement is a key component for improving human performance for organizational sustainability. In order to do so, it suggests the important role that employee work engagement has on the relationships among various factors in the organization, including organizational procedural justice, knowledge sharing, and innovative work behaviors. A total of 400 complete responses from full-time employees in Korean organizations were used for the purpose of data analysis with structural equation modeling (SEM). The results demonstrated that organizational procedural justice is positively related with employee work engagement, knowledge sharing, and innovative work behavior. In addition, work engagement enhances employee knowledge sharing and innovative work behavior, and knowledge sharing enhances innovative work behavior. With regard to the mechanisms of these relationships, work engagement and knowledge sharing acted as significant mediators. Based on the findings, we suggested relevant research implications and recommendations for future research on sustainable organizations.

Naimatullah Shah, Sadia Anwar & Irani Zahir, The Impact of Organisational Justice on Ethical Behaviour, 12 Int’l J. Bus. Innovation & Res. 240 (2017), http://www.inderscienceonline.com/doi/abs/10.1504/IJBIR.2017.081405.

Within the workplace, justice is influenced by the interpersonal relationships between colleagues and/or management among other things. The main reason for this research is to examine the correlation between organizational justice and the ethical behavior of employees. Based on the literature, the conceptual model developed in this paper integrates distributive, procedural, interpersonal and informational justice in relation to ethical behavior. By applying an adapted survey questionnaire, data were collected from teaching staff at public sector higher education institutions. Multiple regression analysis was applied to 360 samples and this showed that distributive and procedural justice have a more positive and significant impact than informational and interpersonal justice on the ethical behavior of employees. This is an empirical study which may contribute to the literature on ethical behavior, organizational development and employee development.

Jessie George & Stephanie Wallio, Organizational Justice and Millennial Turnover in Public Accounting, 39 Employee Relations 112 (2017), http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/ER-11-2015-0208.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between distributive justice, procedural justice, and turnover intentions for Millennial employees working in the public accounting environment.

Design/methodology/approach: Data collection utilized an online survey sent to members of a regional certified public accountant organization (n=75).

Findings: Lower levels of both distributive and procedural justice predicted higher turnover intentions, controlling for gender and job tenure. Procedural justice was found to have a stronger relationship with turnover intentions than distributive justice for Millennial public accountants.

Practical implications: The public accounting industry is facing a crisis based on the shortage of staff and senior level accountants, which are primarily Millennial employees. The study results have practical implications for public accounting firms. The findings suggest that the fairness of organizational processes could impact Millennials’ turnover intentions more than the fairness of organizational rewards. Employers could use this information to manage levels of procedural justice, which could reduce turnover intentions, actual turnover, and other byproducts of the staffing shortage.

Originality/value: This study examined the relationship between organizational justice and Millennial turnover intentions in public accounting. The study replicated the findings of some prior studies in a purely Millennial sample in the public accounting context and addressed some of the contradictory results seen previously related to organizational justice. As the public accounting industry has an abnormally large percentage of Millennial employees, these findings may be applied to other environments as the Millennial population in the workforce increases.

Wenxue Lu, Zhi Li & Sigi Wang, The Role of Justice for Cooperation and Contract’s Moderating Effect in Construction Dispute Negotiation, 24 Engineering, Construction & Architectural Mgmt. 133 (2017), http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/ECAM-01-2015-0002.

Purpose: Justice, although well developed in the organizational field, has not been given adequate attention in the area of construction project dispute negotiations. Based on previous studies, the purpose of this paper is to more elaborately discuss whether each dimension of justice (distributive, procedural and interactional) is important for negotiators to cooperate in construction project dispute negotiation and whether their impact was moderated by the completeness of construction contract.

Design/methodology/approach: A survey of 164 prime negotiators from different construction projects was conducted. A stepwise multiple regression was employed to test the impact of each dimension of justice, and then a moderated multiple regression model was used to test the moderating effect of contract completeness.

Findings: The results indicated that, while distributive justice is related to cooperative behaviors, the impact of procedural justice and interactional justice also have great impact, and even more significantly related to cooperative behaviors. Moreover, while contractual obligations positively moderates the relationship between procedural justice and cooperative behaviors, the term specificity negatively moderates the relationship between procedural and interactional justice and cooperative behaviors.

Patrick M. Gichira, Susan W. Were & George O. Orwa, Effect of Employees Perceptions of Procedural Justice on Employee Commitment in Health Sector Non-Governmental Organizations in Kenya, 1 Euro. J. Hum. Resource 26 (2017), https://ajpojournals.org/journals/index.php/EJH/article/view/187/249.

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to establish the effect of employees’ perceptions of procedural justice on employee commitment in health sector non-governmental organizations in Kenya.

Methodology: The study adopted descriptive and correlational research designs with a statistical sample of 195 employees responsible for key result areas in 17 health sector Non-Governmental Organizations. Justice perceptions were measured using Colquitt’s four construct model comprising of distributive, procedural, interpersonal and informational justice while organizational commitment was measured through Meyer’s three component model comprising of affective, continuance and normative commitment. Inferential statistics comprising of correlation, multiple linear regression models and ANOVA analysis were applied to establish the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Qualitative data was analyzed through the use of questionnaires.

Results: Based on the findings, the study concluded that procedural justice perceptions have a positive influence on effective commitment and normative commitment.

Ajogwu Akoh & Edwinah Amah, Procedural Justice and Employees Commitment to Supervisor in Nigerian Health Sector, 2 Int’l J. Mgmt. Sci. & Bus. Admin. 28 (2016), https://ideas.repec.org/a/mgs/ijmsba/v2y2016i12p28-36.html.

In this research, we investigated the relationship between procedural justice and employees commitment to supervisor in Rivers State of Nigeria. A survey questionnaire was sent out to a sample size of 103 employees, resulting in 99 responses out of which 13 copies of the questionnaire were not statistically usable. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used for data analysis. This study found a significantly positive relationship between procedural justice and employees commitment to supervisor. We found that employees tend to easily identify with supervisors that implement fair procedures than those that do not and employees do study or evaluate their organizations justice climate to identify procedural injustice by comparing policies of different organizations. We concluded that fairness of procedures could reinforce a healthy justice climate and employees commitment to supervisor in turn. The justices of outcome and interaction depend mainly on the justice of procedures, as unjust procedures may not turn out a just outcome. We, therefore, recommended that organizations should commission inquiries into the justice climate of the industries they operate, ascertain the best practice, beat such a practice or at least align procedures, policies and programs with the principles of fairness.

Maria Falk Mikkelsen, Do Managers Face a Performance Trade-Off? Correlations Between Production and Process Performance, Int’l Pub. Mgmt. J. (published online January 2017), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10967494.2016.1276495.

The existence of multiple goals in public organizations inevitably raises the concern that managers face performance trade-offs. In particular, scholars have expressed the fear that public managers, in order to secure high production performance, are forced to sacrifice performance on goals like equity, accountability, and procedural justice. However, our knowledge of whether such trade-offs exist is scarce. Using an administrative 10-year panel data set of Danish public schools and principals, this article analyzes trade-offs between production performance (measured by student performance and student pass rate) and process performance (measured by equity, accountability, and procedural justice). Results show no evidence of trade-offs. In contrast, principals who succeed in raising student performance generally also succeed in securing high pass rates, high equity, high accountability, and high procedural justice. These results suggest that managers who are able to secure high performance on one dimension of performance will likely also be high-performing on other performance dimensions.

Martin R. Edwards & Selin Kudret, Multi-Foci CSR Perceptions, Procedural Justice and In-Role Employee Performance: The Mediating Role of Commitment and Pride, 27 Hum. Resource Mgmt. J. 169 (2017), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1748-8583.12140/full.

This study explores differential employee responses to perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) treatment of social and non-social stakeholder foci of the community, customers, shareholders and environment along with first-party employee justice perceptions. At a finance-sector multinational, we test the mediating role of commitment and pride in accounting for the relationship between perceptions of stakeholder treatment and in-role performance. We propose and pilot a new multi-foci CSR measure and include this in a mediated model within a separate study. Socially responsible treatment of customers and the environment play a role in predicting performance; these foci are related to either pride or commitment. Community CSR, first-party justice perceptions and commitment predict performance either directly or indirectly. Our research shows an absence of any positive employee response associated with CSR towards shareholders. The study uncovers new insights into our understanding of complexities in employee responses to CSR activities.

Sebastian Uriesi, Efficiency of Pay for Performance Programs in Romanian Companies and the Mediating Role of Organizational Justice, 64 Scientific Annals Econ. & Bus. 1 (2017), https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/aicue.2017.64.issue-1/aicue-2017-0001/aicue-2017-0001.pdf.

The present research examined the influences of pay for performance programs on employee performance in the Romanian context, by comparing a sample of employees in companies in which such programs are implemented to a sample of employees in organizations in which performance is not used as a criterion in deciding financial rewards. Results show that the work performances of the former, as evaluated by the direct supervisors of each employee, are significantly higher than those of the latter, and that this effect of performance pay is partly mediated by its positive effects on employee perceptions of distributive and procedural justice. Furthermore, results indicate that the individual-level financial incentive systems are more efficient in fostering work performance than the team-level performance pay programs in the Romanian employee sample, and that they also have stronger effects on the two dimensions of organizational justice.

Marie Andela & Didier Truchot, The Impact of Distributive and Procedural Justice on Burnout: Does It Affect French and German Teachers Differently? Int’l J. Culture & Mental Health (published online March 2017), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17542863.2017.1300592.

The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the relationships between distributive and procedural justice and teachers’ burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment) between two countries: France and Germany. It was assumed that, due to the difference in the organizational educational structures of France and Germany, distributive and procedural justice would have different relationships on teachers’ burnout in both countries. Our samples consisted of 93 teachers in Germany and 89 teachers in France. Results of regression analysis indicated that among teachers in France, distributive justice plays a major role in the burnout process, while among teachers in Germany both distributive and procedural justice have strong impacts on burnout. 


Jennifer R. Rineer et al., The Moderating Effect of Perceived Organizational Support on the Relationships Between Organizational Justice and Objective Measures of Cardiovascular Health, Euro. J. Work & Org. Psychol. (published online January 2017), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1359432X.2016.1277207.

This paper builds on a recent meta-analytic review on the relationships between organizational justice and health. Specifically, we examine the moderating role of perceived organizational support (POS) on the relationships between organizational justice and three objective cardiovascular health measures, namely, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, among a population of 290 public construction workers. The interaction between justice and POS was statistically significant using procedural justice, demonstrating that procedural justice is associated with improvements in the three health outcomes only when POS is relatively high. In other words, higher levels of both procedural justice and POS were needed for reduced heart rate and reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However, the interaction between distributive justice and POS did not significantly relate to the health outcomes. This study makes a contribution the field by focusing the effects of psychosocial workplace variables on measures of cardiovascular health, and demonstrating an important boundary condition of the relationships between procedural justice and cardiovascular risk factors.

Emily Ryo, Legal Attitudes of Immigrant Detainees, Law & Soc’y Rev. (published online February 2017), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/lasr.12252/full.

A substantial body of research shows that people's legal attitudes can have wide-ranging behavioral consequences. In this article, I use original survey data to examine long-term immigrant detainees’ legal attitudes. I find that the majority of detainees express a felt obligation to obey the law, and do so at a significantly higher rate than other U.S. sample populations. I also find that the detainees’ perceived obligation to obey U.S. immigration authorities is significantly related to their evaluations of procedural justice, as measured by their assessments of fair treatment while in detention. This finding remains robust controlling for a variety of instrumental and detainee background factors, including the detainees’ experiences with the legal system and legal authorities in their countries of origin. Finally, I find that vicarious procedural justice evaluations based on detainees’ assessments of how others are treated are as important to detainees’ perceived obligation to obey U.S. immigration authorities as their personal experiences of fair or unfair treatment. I discuss the broader implications of these findings and their contributions to research on procedural justice and legal compliance, and research on legal attitudes of noncitizens.

Amy Witkoski Stimpfel et al., Common Predictors of Nurse-Reported Quality of Care and Patient Safety, Health Care Mgmt. Rev. (published online March 2017), http://journals.lww.com/hcmrjournal/Abstract/publishahead/Common_predictors_of_nurse_reported_quality_of.99752.aspx.

Background: In the era of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, quality of care and patient safety in health care have never been more visible to patients or providers. Registered nurses (nurses) are key players not only in providing direct patient care but also in evaluating the quality and safety of care provided to patients and families.

Purpose: We had the opportunity to study a unique cohort of nurses to understand more about the common predictors of nurse-reported quality of care and patient safety across acute care settings.

Approach: We analyzed cross-sectional survey data that were collected in 2015 from 731 nurses, as part of a national 10-year panel study of nurses. Variables selected for inclusion in regression analyses were chosen based on the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model, which is composed of work system or structure, process, and outcomes.

Results: Our findings indicate that factors from three components of the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model-Work System (person, environment, and organization) are predictive of quality of care and patient safety as reported by nurses. The main results from our multiple linear and logistic regression models suggest that significant predictors common to both quality and safety were job satisfaction and organizational constraints. In addition, unit type and procedural justice were associated with patient safety, whereas better nurse-physician relations were associated with quality of care.

Conclusion: Increasing nurses' job satisfaction and reducing organizational constraints may be areas to focus on to improve quality of care and patient safety.

Practical Implications: Our results provide direction for hospitals and nurse managers as to how to allocate finite resources to achieve improvements in quality of care and patient safety alike.

Jennifer R. Wilking & Guang Zhang, Who Cares About Procedural Fairness? An Experimental Approach to Support for Village Elections, J. Chinese Pol. Sci. (published online March 2017), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11366-016-9451-x.

After roughly two decades of village elections, to what extent are high quality local elections consolidated in rural China? While attitudinal and behavioral evidence tell a mixed story, this paper leverages experimental data to understand how the procedural quality of village elections, specifically the methods used to nominate candidates, affects support for elections in rural China. After establishing that procedural fairness has a significant effect on whether villagers support village elections, we explore why this is the case. Using democratic consolidation as an analogy, we explore both instrumental and intrinsic motivations for procedural fairness. Some types of people – namely farmers and wealthy villagers, may value procedural fairness for ego-tropic, instrumental reasons. Alternatively, some may value procedurally fair elections for the expected collective outcomes, such as increased public goods provision. Finally, some individuals likely appreciate procedural fairness as an inherent good. We assess each motivation by interacting nomination procedures with measures of profession, income, village level public goods provision and egalitarian core values. With the exception of farmers, each interaction is significant, suggesting that multiple constituencies value high quality village elections in the countryside, likely, for diverse reasons.

Ivona Hideg & D. Lance Ferris, Dialectical Thinking and Fairness-Based Perspectives of Affirmative Action, J. Applied Psychol. (published online February 2017), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28150989.

Affirmative action (AA) policies are among the most effective means for enhancing diversity and equality in the workplace, yet are also often viewed with scorn by the wider public. Fairness-based explanations for this scorn suggest AA policies provide preferential treatment to minorities, violating procedural fairness principles of consistent treatment. In other words, to promote equality in the workplace, effective AA policies promote inequality when selecting employees, and the broader public perceives this to be procedurally unfair. Given this inconsistency underlies negative reactions to AA policies, we argue that better preparing individuals to deal with inconsistencies can mitigate negative reactions to AA policies. Integrating theories from the fairness and cognitive styles literature, we demonstrate across 4 studies how dialectical thinking-a cognitive style associated with accepting inconsistencies in one's environment-increases support for AA policies via procedural fairness perceptions. Specifically, we found support for our propositions across a variety of AA policy types (i.e., strong and weak preference policies) and when conceptualizing dialectical thinking either as an individual difference or as a state that can be primed-including being primed by the framing of the AA policy itself. We discuss theoretical contributions and insights for policy-making at government and organizational levels.


New Thinking and Interpretations

Lain Dare & Jacki Schirmer, Exploring the Justice in Forestry Negotiations: Trading Justice for Politics, in Natural Resources and Environmental Justice: Australian Perspectives 105 (Anna Lukasiewicz ed., 2017).

In this chapter we evaluate the ‘Tasmanian forest peace process’ from the perspective of procedural justice, focusing on the process rather than on its outcomes (distributive justice). This allows for an exploration of how the negotiation process influenced perceptions of the justice process, providing insights to the trade-offs involved between procedural justice and achieving desired outcomes. Following a brief overview of the study methods, we present key principles of procedural justice using the Social Justice Framework (Lukasiewicz and Baldwin 2014), and identify nine normative indicators of procedural justice that guide our subsequent analysis. We then discuss lessons from the Tasmanian forest peace process for justice, focusing on the challenge of satisfying multiple procedural justice objectives within a highly contested political environment.


In the News/On the Web

Phil Bowen, How to Improve Young Adults’ Experience at Court, Center for Justice Innovation, January 30, 2017, http://justiceinnovation.org/young-adults-fairness/

Wendy S. Salkin, Epistemic Injustice, Procedural Fairness, and the Real Weight of Medical Evidence, Bill of Health Blog, March 6, 2017, http://blogs.harvard.edu/billofhealth/2017/03/06/epistemic-injustice-procedural-fairness-and-the-real-weight-of-medical-evidence/.

Laura Eastes, OKCPD Makes Procedural Justice a Priority and Adds It to Policy and Procedure Manual, Oklahoma Gazette, March 23, 2017, http://okgazette.com/2017/03/23/okcpd-makes-procedural-justice-a-priority-and-adds-it-to-policy-and-procedure-manual/

Now in Print

These articles have been listed in past quarterly reports as forthcoming but have recently been published in print. This section also includes older articles that have just recently come to our attention.

Charles F. Klahm IV, Benjamin Steiner & Benjamin Meade, Assessing the Relationship Between Police Use of Force and Inmate Offending, 63 Crime & Delinquency 267 (2017), http://cad.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/11/14/0011128714558291.abstract.

Scott E. Wolfe et al., Procedural Justice, Legitimacy, and School Principals' Evaluations of School Resource Officers: Support, Perceived Effectiveness, Trust, and Satisfaction, 28 Crim. Just. Pol'y Rev. 107 (2017), http://cjp.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/03/08/0887403415573565.abstract.

Maarten Van Craen & Wesley G. Skogan, Achieving Fairness in Policing: The Link Between Internal and External Procedural Justice, 20 Police Q. 3 (2017), http://pqx.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/07/13/1098611116657818.abstract.

Rebecca Hollander-Blumoff, Formation of Procedural Justice Judgments in Legal Negotiation, 26 Group Decision & Negotiation 19 (2017), http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10726-016-9498-2.