Quarterly Research Report

New Developments in Procedural Fairness: Winter 2017 Quarterly Report

This report, edited by Justine Greve, M.A., Kansas Court of Appeals and Shelley Spacek Miller, J.D., National Center for State Courts, highlights the most notable procedural fairness scholarship released over the past quarter. Each quarterly issue will also include a listing of other articles that are of particular relevance to procedural fairness and the courts. Recent news and events, if available, complete the report. Articles that are not yet in print but available on the publishers website are identified with 'published online,' and articles available via open source are denoted by a double asterisk. A pdf version of this issue can also be found here.

General Research

Scott E. Wolfe & Kyle McLean, Procedural Injustice, Risky Lifestyles, and Violent Victimization, 63 Crime & Delinquency 1383 (2017).

Participation in risky lifestyles is a well-established predictor of victimization. Several variables have been identified as key predictors of risky activities (e.g., low self-control) but there may be additional sources not considered in the literature to date. We argue that perceptions of procedural unfairness represent a break in social control, thereby opening the door for participation in risky lifestyles that are conducive to victimization. Using three waves of data from the Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT) program, we demonstrated that police procedural injustice was positively associated with risky lifestyles, which partially mediated the relationship between procedural injustice and violent victimization. This study advances the literature by demonstrating that our understanding of victimization is enhanced by including procedural injustice into its explanation.

New Thinking and Interpretations

Daniel S. Nagin & Cody W. Telep, Procedural Justice and Legal Compliance, 13 Ann. Rev. L. & Soc. Sci. 5 (2017).

This article reviews the evidence on whether procedurally just treatment of citizens by agents of the criminal justice system, usually the police, has the effect of increasing the citizen's compliance with the law. In brief, we find that perception-based studies consistently show that citizen perceptions of procedurally just treatment are closely tied to perceptions of police legitimacy, and that with only a few exceptions perceptions of legitimacy are strongly associated with legal compliance. However, what has not been established is whether these associations reflect a causal connection whereby changes in policies that are effective in changing actual procedurally just treatment of citizens by police and others lead to changes in legal compliance and perceived legitimacy. Three priority areas for future research are identified: (a) devising and testing a theory of the cumulative effects of experience and community and situational context on perceptions of procedurally just treatment and perceptions of legitimacy, (b) filling out and testing a theory of the circumstances in which improved perceptions of legitimacy translate into greater legal compliance, and (c) designing and evaluating policies and training protocols that are effective in translating the constituent components of procedurally just treatment into improved legal compliance.

Tom R. Tyler, Methodology in Legal Research, 13 Utrecht L. Rev. 130 (2017).

Recent legal scholarship demonstrates increased attention to empirical research in the design and evaluation of law and the policies and practices of legal authorities. The growth of evidence informed law is an exciting development and one that promises to improve the legal system. In this paper I argue for the particular value of drawing not just upon empirical research methods when evaluating existing policies and practices but upon social science theories. Theory based research provides a basis for imagining and testing different models about how the legal system might operate. I support this argument by presenting research on social science frameworks for legal authority which are alternatives to the currently prevalent instrumental model.


Compliance and Cooperation 

Courts and Dispute Resolution

Kathryn Hendley, Contempt for Court in Russia: The Impact of Litigation Experience, 42 Rev. Cent. & East Eur. L. 134 (2017).

This article explores how Russians think about their courts and whether court veterans are distinguishable from those who have never used the courts. The analysis is based on data generated by a nationally representative survey fielded in 2010. The analysis clearly shows that users and nonusers think differently about courts and law. Users are both more positive and more negative about the courts, depending on the context. Although they praise the work of judges and other courthouse personnel in their own cases, they seem to emerge with lingering negative views of the courts that come into focus when asked more general questions. Nonusers tend to be more optimistic about the potential of courts to achieve justice.

Jonathan M. Golding et al., Justice Served? Perceptions of Plea Bargaining Involving a Sexual Assault in Child and Adult Females, Crim. Just. & Behav. (published online December 2017).

Seventy-four community members (46 women, 28 men) read vignettes describing a plea bargain in a mock sexual assault case. We employed a within-participant design and manipulated rape victim age (6- vs. 26-year-old), type of plea bargain agreement (reduced prison sentence vs. only probation), and reason for plea bargain (save victim from reliving a traumatic experience vs. save time in court). Participants answered questions about the plea bargain agreement (e.g., was justice served). The results showed less support of plea bargaining when it (a) involved a child, (b) involved only probation, and (c) when the rationale for the plea bargain was to save time. Significant moderation revealed that plea deals involving probation in 6-year-old child cases were perceived most negatively. The results are discussed in terms of procedural justice theory in sexual assault cases, and how perceptions of the general public impact the use of plea bargaining as a legal tool.

J.E. Hulst et al., On Why Procedural Justice Matters in Court Hearings: Experimental Evidence That Behavioral Disinhibition Weakens the Association Between Procedural Justice and Evaluations of Judge, 13 Utrecht L. Rev. 114 (2017).

Using two randomized controlled courtroom experiments on actual litigants at court hearings, we examine a thus far unexplored reason why perceived procedural justice can be strongly associated with litigants' trust in judges and legitimate power assigned to judges. We argue that because litigants try to make sense of what is happening at their hearings, they will tend to inhibit ongoing action in order to pause and check what is going on in the courtroom. During this state of behavioral inhibition, experiences of how fairly judges are treating them will have a sturdy impact on litigants’ reactions. This explanation implies that an experimental manipulation known to weaken behavioral inhibition should attenuate the positive association between perceived procedural justice and trust and legitimacy ratings. The results of both experiments support this line of reasoning. We discuss the implications for the understanding of the psychology of procedural justice and the robustness of priming effects in experimental social psychology.

Logan J. Somers & Kristy Holtfreter, Gender and Mental Health: An Examination of Procedural Justice in a Specialized Court Context, Behav. Sci. & L. (published online December 2017).

The procedural justice framework has been applied in the criminal justice contexts of policing, corrections, and courts. According to this perspective, fair treatment, respectful dialogue and being given a proper voice will contribute to citizens' positive views of authority figures. While this literature has grown immensely, several questions remain unanswered. Do males and females perceive similar levels of procedural justice? Does mental health status influence perceptions of fair treatment? Whether procedural justice is a general perspective that can be applied across social groupings has important implications for correctional treatment in that programs that truly “work” for all are more cost-effective. Toward that end, the current study investigates the relationships among procedural justice perceptions, gender, and mental health status in specialized drug courts, a context that has received little empirical attention. We do so using secondary data originally collected between 2003 and 2009 for Rossman, Roman, Zweig, Rempel and Lindquist's Multisite Adult Drug Court Evaluation (MADCE). Results from a full-sample analysis reveal that women report higher levels of procedural justice; that drug court participation significantly influences procedural justice perceptions; and that depressive symptomology is a significant predictor of procedural justice perceptions. In male- and female-specific subsamples, drug court participation exerts similar effects for males and females, as does depressive symptomology. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed.

Deanna Malatesta, Lisa Blomgren Amsler & Susanna Foxworthy Scott, Disputant Preferences for Mediated or Adjudicated Processes in Administrative Agencies: The Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission Settlement Part Program, prepared for presentation at Conflict and Its Resolution in the Changing World of Work: A Conference and Special Issue Honoring David B. Lipsky (2017).

Previous research examining disputants’ preferences for mediation over more formal adjudicative proceedings is limited and mostly experimental. Moreover, this work has not examined preferences in relation to repeated experience with various types of proceedings. We surveyed disputants who have experienced different types of proceedings in administrative adjudication and administrative law judge mediation in the Settlement Part Program at the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSHRC). We find that the higher the perceptions of procedural justice, the greater the preference for use of mediation. In addition, the more total experience disputants have in the OSHRC dispute system (including both adjudication and settlement judge mediation), the greater their preference for mediation.

Naomi Creutzfeldt & Ben Bradford, How Do Complainants Experience the Ombuds Procedure? Detecting Cultural Patterns of Disputing Behavior: A Comparative Analysis of Users That Complain About Financial Services, in Research Handbook on the Ombudsman (Edward Elgar ed., 2017).

Are systems we use for resolving disputes designed in a user-friendly manner? What motivates us to accept a decision handed down by an ombuds? There is scant empirical evidence to help understand what users of ombuds expect from them and what informs these expectations. Yet, in a recent wide-ranging study Creutzfeldt (2016) asked people who had just been through an ombuds procedure about precisely these issues. Exploring the importance of fairness perceptions for ombuds procedures, one of the findings of the project was that decision-acceptance (and trust) was linked to users being heard, having a voice, and especially their “first impressions” of the ombuds. Does this finding hold true across different jurisdictions, though? By focusing on users of the German insurance ombuds (Versicherungsombudsmann) and the Financial Ombudsman Services (FOS) in the UK, this chapter will explore how procedural justice matters in different ways in different legal cultures. The data reveal culturally distinct narratives about expectations towards ombuds, which we suggest is partially a result of the different legal socialization experiences of people in Germany and the UK. Having identified patterns within the private sector, lessons learned for the public sector are discussed. We conclude this chapter with some thoughts as to how this study might direct future understandings of user experience and future research.

Tammi Walker, Fixing What's Wrong with How Universities Adjudicate Sexual Misconduct Claims: How Procedural Changes Can Encourage Cooperation (University of Illinois College of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 18-11, 2017).

Processes that are considered to be fair for both accused students and victims are what’s missing from the way institutions of higher education adjudicate campus sexual assault. Ideas for reform are available from a myriad of sources. Evidence-based guidance; however, is in short supply. This Article seeks to provide much needed structure for the debate regarding campus sexual assault by describing a model based upon procedural justice theory. The experiments described here investigate the proposition that students will be more likely to report sexual assault and assist authorities when asked, if they trust those authorities because they believe that the process for settling disputes is fair. Results show that perceived fairness matters. When students were presented with fair policies and procedures, they reported having greater confidence in the disciplinary system, which corresponded with greater willingness to cooperate with authorities. Exposure to fair policies increased willingness to cooperate, even when the outcome was unfavorable. Accordingly, students’ opinions about the process should factor into the reform of university disciplinary systems.

Luke Moffett, Victim Personal Statements in Managing Victims’ Voices in Sentencing in Northern Ireland: Taking a More Procedural Justice Approach, N. Ireland Legal Q. (published online October 2017).

Victim Personal Statements (VPS) have been introduced in a number common law criminal justice systems. Although VPS have been espoused as important in ensuring victims’ ‘voices’ are ‘heard’ in sentencing, this article examines the extend of improving victim satisfaction and procedural justice in Northern Ireland. In light of increasing juridification of victim participation through VPS by the EU and the English Court of Appeals its impact on sentencing has mixed views amongst victims, intermediaries and legal practitioners. Drawing from 24 interviews with judges, lawyers and intermediaries, this article finds that greater attention should be paid to vulnerable victims’ inclusion and for judges to better articulate the value VPS have in sentencing and the significance of such statements in acknowledging the victim’s experience, rather than engendering harsher sentences.

Gianni Ribeiro & Emma Antrobus, Investigating the Impact of Jury Sentencing Recommendations Using Procedural Justice Theory, 20 New Crim. L. Rev. J. 535 (2017).

Public confidence in the criminal justice system is critical for the system to function effectively. Two studies investigated the impact of jury sentencing recommendations on public confidence using procedural justice theory. The first study (N = 80) manipulated the presence of jury involvement in sentencing (voice present versus voice absent) and the punitiveness of the minimum non-parole period (more punitive versus less punitive) to examine whether giving juries a “voice”—a key element of procedural justice—would increase public confidence in the courts, as well as perceptions of fairness and legitimacy. Contrary to predictions, results revealed that a more punitive sentence led to increased perceptions of legitimacy, which was associated with higher confidence. The second study (N = 60) examined whether manipulating the Judge’s agreement with the jury’s recommendation—as well as the Judge’s reason for disagreement—would elicit the “frustration effect,” leading to a decrease in confidence and perceptions of fairness and legitimacy. There was no evidence to suggest that the frustration effect was present. Results of both studies could suggest that jury sentencing recommendations may not effectively increase public confidence and perceptions of fairness and legitimacy in the courts, however alternate explanations are discussed.

Laura Anne Weir, An Enduring Liberal Institution: How Neoliberal Victim-Centric Reforms Strengthen the Liberal Conception of the Legitimacy of the Criminal Trial (2017) (unpublished LLM thesis, University of Kent).

This thesis considers the impact on the legitimacy of the trial of a raft of recent, victim-centric reforms to the English criminal trial process. For some time the conception of the English criminal trial has been as a settled, liberal institution, in the tradition of an adversarial conflict between the state and the defendant. The focus of the proceedings has been on the defendant, and other than usually being the trigger for an investigation, the status of the victim in the trial process has been no different to that of any other witness. The legitimation of the process has rested on the liberal justification of the deprivation of the liberty of the accused only following conviction in a fair system of trial.

. . . .

The contention of this thesis is that the neoliberal, victim-centric reforms to the English criminal trial paradoxically serve to strengthen the liberal conception of the criminal trial. Such a liberal conception traditionally champions both the participation of the defendant being called to account and due process to protect the defendant against the oppressive exercise of state power. Enhanced perceptions of procedural fairness to victims in the trial process and the expansion of the audience by opening a dialogue between the victim and those in power at points of the trial process that were previously remote to the victim, in no way diminishes the liberal conception but in fact characterizes the legitimation of an enduring liberal trial institution.

Fahimeh Abedi, Universal Standards for the Concepts of Fairness, Trust and Security in Online Dispute Resolution in B2C E-Disputes (November 2017) (unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Victoria University).

The Internet has created a global marketplace, where consumers can purchase goods and services. For online purchases, disputes can occur and are called electronic commerce disputes (e-disputes). The need for an appropriate jurisdiction for e-disputes has resulted in the development of Online Dispute Resolution (ODR), a mechanism for resolving these disputes through the internet. Currently, there is no universal agreement about the concepts of procedural fairness, trust and security in ODR systems, although these issues have been widely discussed in the field of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). This research aimed to develop a set of standards, so that e-commerce users have faith in the fairness, security, and trust of ODR systems.

Prison and Offenders

Adam Fine et al., Does the Effect of Justice System Attitudes on Adolescent Crime Vary Based on Psychosocial Maturity? Child Dev. (published online October 2017).

Adolescents who view the justice system negatively are prone to commit crime. Simultaneously, youth who have difficulty regulating their behavior are likely to commit crime. Using a longitudinal sample of 1,216 male adolescents (ages 13–17) who had been arrested for the first time, were racially/ethnically diverse, and were drawn from three U.S. states, this study incorporated a developmental perspective into the procedural justice framework to examine whether psychosocial immaturity moderated the effect of justice system attitudes on youth crime. Attitudes toward the justice system were associated with reoffending among psychosocially mature youth, but not among psychosocially immature youth. This developmental perspective indicates that psychosocially immature youth who have difficulty regulating their behavior may be at risk of engaging in crime regardless of how they perceive the justice system.

Glenn D. Walters, Procedural Justice, Legitimacy Beliefs, and Moral Disengagement in Emerging Adulthood: Explaining Continuity and Desistance in the Moral Model of Criminal Lifestyle Development, Law & Hum. Behav. (published online November 2017).

Research has shown that procedural justice reliably predicts future offending behavior, although there is some indication that this may be more a function of legitimacy beliefs than of procedural justice per se. The current study sought to explain continuity and desistance in the moral model of criminal lifestyle development by comparing legitimacy beliefs, procedural justice, and moral disengagement as initiators and mediators of pathways leading to early adult offending. It was hypothesized that low legitimacy beliefs but not perceived procedural (in)justice or moral disengagement would initiate, and that moral disengagement but not low legitimacy beliefs or procedural injustice would mediate, the effect of low legitimacy beliefs on subsequent offending behavior. This hypothesis was tested in a group of 1,142 young adult males (age range = 18 to 20) from the Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2012). Results showed that as predicted, the target pathway (legitimacy → moral disengagement → offending) but none of the control pathways achieved a significant indirect effect. Hence, one way legitimacy beliefs reduce future offending and lead to desistance is by inhibiting moral disengagement. Besides the theoretical implications of these results, there is also the suggestion that legitimacy beliefs and moral disengagement should be considered for inclusion in secondary prevention and criminal justice intervention programs.

Hugh Robert MacIver Asher, Influences on Engagement with Drug Treatment in Prisons: Environmental, Personal and Procedural Factors (2016) (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Lancaster University).

Reducing drug-related crime through increasing participation in drug treatment is a key feature of the current National Drug Strategy. Prison has been identified as a point of entry to drug treatment; an important setting in which to deliver drug treatment and support; and an opportunistic location to engage drug users in treatment. However, if the system fails to maximise the potential of this situation and actively or substantively engage the drug user with treatment, then a valuable opportunity may be missed. Additionally, if the experience is viewed negatively, it may impact on drug users' attitudes toward engaging with drug treatment in the future. This research primarily seeks to look at factors that influence engagement with prison-based drug treatment, with a focus on providing insight into the influence of the relationship or 'therapeutic working alliance' between prison drug workers and drug-using prisoners. . . .  Finally, the research also draws on theories of legitimacy, procedural justice and compliance within wider criminal justice interventions, and compares these to the more therapeutic concept of the working alliance.

Monica E. Summers, Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick: The Effects of Women Correctional Officers on Prison Violence (August 2017) (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Southern Illinois University Carbondale).

Current theoretical research focusing on prison violence suggests that staff culture might influence inmate behavior. Correctional officers have the most interaction with inmates, and a crucial aspect of achieving staff and institutional legitimacy involves treating inmates in a procedurally just fashion. Literature suggests that procedural justice in prisons relies on comprehensive care; inmates require dignity, respect, safety, and individualized treatment focused on successful community reentry. Since correctional officers vary in their capacity to convey legitimacy, individual characteristics such as officer gender might influence inmate perceptions, thereby affecting inmate behavior. The presence of women may symbolize a representative bureaucracy, and women may perform job duties differently based on preconceived attitudes, socialization, and predispositions to avoid violence. This project utilizes four waves of the Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities (1990-2005) to examine the relative effects of the percentage women correctional officers on inmate-on-inmate and inmate-on-staff violence, assess whether these effects take time, and evaluate interactional effects between gender and institutional characteristics. Although some models are supportive of the argument that women officers affect prison violence, findings indicate that other factors are more important determinants.

New Thinking and Interpretations

David M. Bierie & Ruth E. Mann, The History and Future of Prison Psychology, 23 Psychol. Pub. Pol’y & L. 478 (2017).

Prisons are the quintessential government institution, with almost complete control over the lives of the people compelled to spend time in them. Depending on how they are run and what services they provide, they have the potential to change people’s paths in life for the better or the worse, or indeed to leave people untouched. Furthermore, an enormous number of people spend time in prisons, particularly in the United States, so that the impact of imprisonment has serious consequences for society. In this article, we reflect on some of the major influences that psychology has had on prisons and imprisonment. We consider the importance of the scientist-practitioner model and the extent to which psychological evidence has permeated prison policy. We illustrate with four examples of how psychologists have contributed to understanding and influencing prisons: the Stanford Prison Experiment, the scientist-practitioner work of Hans Toch, the concepts of legitimacy and procedural justice, and the risk, needs, and responsivity principles of correctional rehabilitation. Looking to the future, we imagine how psychologically informed data science could expand its reach, and discuss ways in which prison psychologists could up our game in effectively communicating and embedding the findings of psychological science.


Yuning Wu et al., Linking Supervisory Procedural Accountability to Officer Procedural Accountability in Chinese Policing, Policing & Soc’y (published online October 2017).

An important yet severely understudied issue in the procedural justice literature involves the linkage between supervisory procedural accountability within a police agency and officer procedural accountability on the street. Relying on the survey data collected from more than 700 police officers in a large Chinese city, this study finds that the effect of supervisory procedural accountability on officer procedural accountability is principally indirect through the mediating factors of officer satisfaction with job and morale, net of several control variables. Noticeably, surveyed officers report only moderate levels of procedural accountability delivered by their supervisors, and even lower levels of accountability that they themselves are willing to render to the public. Implications for future research and policy are discussed.

Scott E. Wolfe et al., Why Does Organizational Justice Matter? Uncertainty Management Among Law Enforcement Officers, 54 J. Crim. Just. 20 (2018).

Purpose: Law enforcement officers who believe their supervisors are organizationally fair are more satisfied with their jobs, more confident in their authority, and more likely to use procedural justice. The problem, however, is that we have little understanding concerning why officers care about being treated fairly. We address this issue by drawing on fairness heuristic and uncertainty management theories.

Methods: We used survey data from a sample of Border Patrol agents (N = 868) to help advance our understanding of the association between organizational justice and job satisfaction. Regression analyses and Stata's margins command were used to visualize the interaction effects.

Results: We found that agents facing uncertainty focused more attention on fair supervisor treatment than their counterparts when considering how satisfied they were with their jobs. Both general workplace uncertainty and uncertainty stemming from recent negative publicity moderated the relationship between organizational justice and job satisfaction.

Conclusions: Organizational justice appears to be more salient to agents facing uncertainty because supervisor fairness provides cues that the agency has their best interests in mind and will support them in the future.

Frank Valentino Ferdik, Jon Gist & Sara Z. Evans, Deviant Peer Associations and Perceived Police Legitimacy: Is There a Connection?  Crim. Just. Pol’y Rev. (published online November 2017).

For police officers to effectively enforce the law, it is imperative that citizens perceive of them as legitimate authority figures. Although procedural justice has shown to be a salient predictor of perceived police legitimacy, a recent line of studies has discovered other significant correlates of this outcome. No study though has explored whether deviant peer associations share a relationship with law enforcement legitimacy evaluations. Questionnaire data were collected from a convenience sample of university students (N = 623) to determine whether measures of friend’s attitudes favorable toward criminal acts as well as friend’s actual criminal behaviors predicted both the obligation to obey and trust in police constructs of police legitimacy. Results indicated that friend’s attitudes supportive of criminal behaviors negatively predicted each police legitimacy concept, while somewhat unexpectedly, respondents who reported having many friends who engaged in past crimes were more likely to obey the police. Policy implications are discussed.

Siyu Liu & Jianhong Liu, Police Legitimacy and Compliance with the Law Among Chinese Youth, Int’l J. Offender Therapy & Comp. Criminology (published online November 2017).

The process-based model of policing garnered considerable support in the discourse on police legitimacy. However, findings are largely based on Western contexts, and little attention has been paid to the model advanced by Tyler that police legitimacy helps promote compliance. Using a high school sample (N = 711) from China, we follow Tankebe’s operationalization and examine the role of legitimacy in youth support for the police and whether legitimacy helps predict compliance with the law. Findings indicate that procedural justice and shared values are strong predictors of youth support to the police, and this support positively predicts compliance with the law. Distributive fairness exerts an independent effect on compliance while having been questioned by the police is negatively related to compliance.

Daniel J. Kruger et al., A Life History Framework Advances the Understanding of Intentions for Police Cooperation, Evolutionary Behav. Sci. (published online November 2017).

Recent policing incidents have increased attention to relationships between community members and police. Academic research on attitudes toward police predominantly follows Tyler’s process-based model of policing; examining the influence of sociodemographic factors on perceptions of procedural justice, whether or not police are fair and trustworthy in their interaction with community members. We developed additional domains of attitudes toward police using evolutionary life history theory (LHT) as a basis for understanding relations with authority figures. We focus on the social roles of police officers in their communities: maintenance of the stability of society, the benefits in social status derived from the role of police officer, and the use of institutional power to exploit community residents and gain resources illicitly. Our new domains demonstrated explanatory power beyond perceptions of procedural justice, demographic factors, and a general life history speed indicator, in both undergraduate (N = 581) and Internet- recruited German (N = 471) samples.

Christi Metcalfe & Olivia Hodge, Empowering the Police to Fight Terrorism in Israel, Criminology & Crim. Just. (published online November 2017).

Police agencies are often seen as reliant on the public to give them the authority and power necessary to carry out their responsibilities, including controlling crime. As many police agencies begin to take on counterterrorism functions, this empowerment of the police is necessary in their fight against terrorism. To our knowledge, no study to date has focused on the empowerment of the police in their counterterrorism role and the factors that influence the willingness of the public to afford the police discretionary authority in terrorism matters. Using a sample of Israeli Jewish adults, we assess the impact of legitimacy-based evaluations, as well as fear of terrorism and political ideologies, on the public’s willingness to empower the police to handle homeland security matters. Police legitimacy and political ideology have a direct impact on police empowerment, while procedural justice, police performance, distributive fairness, and fear of victimization by terrorism also have indirect effects.

Jonathan Herrera et al., The Effects of Police Violence in Media on Mood and Perceived Police Effectiveness, prepared for presentation at the Southern California Conference for Undergraduate Research (Fall 2017).

Electronic media have become a widely accessed source of information and play an important role in shaping attitudes and perceptions of everyday life; however, it is not uncommon for media to draw attention toward extreme outcomes such as violence and deaths. Previous studies have shown that viewing police violence through various media platforms had an effect on attitudes toward the police. This study examined whether exposure to clips/videos of police brutality would affect mood and satisfaction with procedural justice and police legitimacy in 100 university students. Participants were randomly assigned to a control (n=50) or experimental group (n=50). Baseline mood was measured using the Positive and Negative Affective Schedule Scale. Then participants were asked to watch a series of videos, showing either normal police protocol (control condition) or police misconduct involving physical or verbal aggression (experimental condition). Their mood was then assessed again. Perceived effectiveness of police performance was also assessed using the Police Legitimacy Measure. A series of paired-samples t-tests revealed that the experimental sample experienced significantly less positive affect (t(49)= -4.09, p=.0001, Cohen’s d=0.60) and more negative affect (t(49)=13.63, p=.0001, Cohen’s d=1.95) after viewing police violence. However, for the control group, differences between baseline and retest scores for positive affect (t(49) = 1.43, p=n.s., Cohen’s d=0.16) and negative affect (t(49)=0.72, p=n.s., Cohen’s d=0.10) were not statistically significant. Lastly, an independent-samples t-test revealed that scores of perceived police effectiveness or legitimacy were significantly lower for the experimental group, t(98)=2.29, p=.024, Cohen’s d=0.46. Overall, these findings may expand our understanding of exposure to videos of police brutality on our mood and perception of police effectiveness.

Michael E. Carter, Seniority and Transparency in the Perceived Fairness of Seniority-Based Police Promotion (December 2017) (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Walden University).

Perception of fairness is a key construct affecting job performance, and perceptions of promotional processes are related to employees’ sense of justice in private organizations. In police departments, negative perceptions of procedures can be detrimental to departmental effectiveness. The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental study was to compare Louisiana officers’ perceptions of fairness of a seniority-based promotion system in relation to Louisiana deputies’ perceptions of fairness of a merit-based promotion system. Organizational justice theory, including procedural justice, was the theoretical foundation. The research questions were designed to examine whether seniority, transparency, knowledge of the promotion systems, gender, and race predicted levels of perceived fairness. Data were analyzed using an independent samples t test, a MANOVA, and a multiple linear regression. Participants in the seniority-based system perceived it as being fairer than participants in the merit-based system viewed their merit-based system. There were significant differences in knowledge of promotion systems and perceived fairness for rank and system type, but not race and gender. Collectively, predictor variables correlated with perceived fairness. Type of promotion system was not significant when examined with other variables suggesting confounding of predictor variables. Human resources should make employees aware of promotion procedures. Hybrid systems might help address both employee fairness and the promotion of qualified individuals. Officers viewing promotion as fair could lead to positive social change by motivating officers and positively influencing how they serve the public.

Michael D. White, Natalie Toda & Janne E. Gaub, Assessing Citizen Perceptions of Body-Worn Cameras After Encounters with Police, 40 Policing 689 (2017).

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess perceptions of body-worn cameras (BWCs) among citizens who had BWC-recorded police encounters, and to explore the potential for a civilizing effect on citizen behavior.

Design/methodology/approach: From June to November 2015, the authors conducted telephone interviews with 249 citizens in Spokane (WA) who had a recent BWC-recorded police encounter.

Findings: Respondents were satisfied with how they were treated during the police encounter and, overall, had positive attitudes about BWCs. However, only 28 percent of respondents were actually aware of the BWC during their own encounter. The authors also found little evidence of a civilizing effect but did document a significant, positive connection between awareness of the BWC and enhanced perceptions of procedural justice.

Research limitations/implications: Authors only interviewed citizens who had encounters with officers wearing BWCs. However, variation in BWC awareness among citizens allowed the authors to construct a proxy “non-BWC condition” for comparison.

Practical implications: The pre-conditions necessary to produce a civilizing effect among citizens are complex and difficult to achieve. The intriguing relationship between BWC awareness and procedural justice suggests the technology may have the potential to improve police legitimacy.

Originality/value: The study is among the first to explore attitudes about BWCs among those who have their police encounters recorded, and results demonstrate high levels of support among this population. Findings bode well for continued adoption of BWCs in policing.

Police–Citizen Relations Across the World: Comparing Sources and Contexts of Trust and Legitimacy (Dietrich Oberwittler & Sebastian Roché eds., 2018).

Chapters include:

“Police Legitimacy and Public Cooperation: Is Japan an Outlier in the Procedural Justice Model?”

“Policing Marginalized Groups in a Diverse Society: Using Procedural Justice to Promote Group Belongingness and Trust in Police”

“The Impact of the Ferguson, MO Police Shooting on Black and Nonblack Residents’ Perceptions of Police: Procedural Justice, Trust, and Legitimacy"

“Good Cops, Bad Cops: Why Do Police Officers Treat Citizens (Dis)respectfully? Findings from Belgium”

“Why Do Nigerians Cooperate with the Police? Legitimacy, Procedural Justice, and Other Contextual Factors in Nigeria”

New Thinking and Interpretations

Emma Peterson, Jessica Reichert & Kaitlyn Konefal, Procedural Justice in Policing: How the Process of Justice Impacts Public Attitudes and Law Enforcement Outcomes, Center for Justice Research and Evaluation, Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority (2017).

An increasing number of widely publicized and divisive incidents between police and citizens suggest a need for police policies and practices to improve procedural justice. Procedural justice emphasizes the need for police to demonstrate their legitimacy to the public in four areas—voice, transparency, fairness, and impartiality. This article explains procedural justice and police legitimacy, examines the often racial divide between citizens and police, and offers implications for police policy and practice.


Business and Management

Ioana Dallinger & Vincent P. Magnini, A Scenario-Based Experiment Comparing Managerial and Front-Line Employee Apologies in Terms of Customers’ Perceived Justice, Satisfaction, and Commitment, 11 Int’l J. Soc. & Tourism Sci., no. 11, 2017, at 1.

Due to the many moving parts and high human component, mistakes and failures sometimes occur during transactions in service environments. Because a certain portion of such failures is unavoidable, many service providers constantly look for guidance regarding optimal ways by which they should manage failures and recoveries. Through the use of a scenario-based experiment, the findings of this study run counter to the empowerment approach (i.e. that frontline employees should be empowered to resolve failure situations on their own doing). Specifically, this study finds that customers’ perceptions of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice are significantly higher [p-values < .05] when a manager delivers an apology as opposed to the frontline provider. Moreover, customers’ satisfaction with the recovery and commitment to the firm are also significantly stronger [p-values < .05] when a manager apologizes. Interestingly, this study also empirically tests the effects of combined apologies of both the manager and employee and finds that the combined approach yields better results for customers’ interactional justice perceptions and for their satisfaction with recovery, but not for their distributive or procedural justice perceptions or consequent commitment to the firm. This study can serve a springboard for further research. For example, perceptions and attitudes regarding employee empowerment vary based upon country culture. Furthermore, there are likely a number of factors that can moderate the cause and effect relationship between a failure recovery and customers’ post-recovery perceptions [e.g. the severity of the failure].

Jale Minibas-Poussard, Jeanne Le Roy & Turhan Erkmen, The Moderating Role Of Individual Variables in the Relationship Between Organizational Justice and Organizational Commitment, 46 Personnel Rev. 1635 (2017).

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of individual variables (organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) and work locus of control (WLOC)) that have been suspected to intervene as moderators on the relationship between organizational justice and organizational commitment.

Design/methodology/approach: Self-administered survey was completed by 272 bank employees in Istanbul, Turkey.

Findings: The results of moderation analyses clearly indicated a significant effect of OBSE and WLOC on the link between justice perceptions and organizational commitment. People are more committed to organizations when they have high OBSE. WLOC together with OBSE moderated the relationship between procedural justice and organizational commitment: people engaged less in their organizations when they perceived low procedural justice and reported lower OBSE. This relationship was revealed only when external WLOC scores were high.

Research limitations/implications: The study was conducted in Istanbul, Turkey and the sample was limited to 272 participants. These results show that managers should not only hire personnel with high OBSE but they also should provide a participative work atmosphere where employees can perform with all their potential and capacity that may help them reveal their internal WLOC. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed in the end.

Originality/value: The study provides some valuable contributions to the existing body of literature by exhibiting the role of individual variables in the strong relationship between organizational justice and organizational commitment. The findings of the study also contribute to banking sector that has been critical and popular in Turkey since 2001.

Ruiying Cai & Hailin Qu, Customers’ Perceived Justice, Emotions, Direct and Indirect Reactions to Service Recovery: Moderating Effects of Recovery Efforts, J. Hospitality Marketing & Mgmt. (published online October 2017).

This study investigates customers’ direct and indirect reactions to different levels of service recovery efforts using a proposed model incorporating perceived justice and emotions. This research proposes two forms of customers’ direct reactions after a service recovery: condemnation and praise. Based on a scenario-based online experiment with 395 casual dining customers in the United States, this research finds that distributive justice and procedural justice influence customers’ indirect reactions (e.g., revisit intention, word-of-mouth) both directly and indirectly via emotions. Interactional justice influences customers’ direct reactions both directly and indirectly through its prior effects on emotions. The moderating test on levels of service recovery efforts reveals that a high level of service recovery efforts significantly reduces the negative effects of emotions on customers’ intention to condemn and increases their intention to praise compared with a low level of service recovery efforts.

Nachiketa Tripathi & Vinit Ghosh, Gender Differences in the Effect of Downward Influence Strategies on Perceived Stress and General-Health: The Mediating Role of Organizational Justice, Employee Resp. & Rts. J. (published online November 2017).

This study examined the effects of supervisor’s downward influence strategies (DIS) on subordinates’ perceived stress and general-health. The influencing effects of DIS were also analyzed in the light of the mediating effects of organizational justice dimensions, namely, distributive justice (DJ), procedural justice (PJ) and interactional justice (IJ). Responses were collected from three organizations through survey method (Males, N = 91; females, N = 74). Gender differences were observed in the perceptions of DIS which affected perceived stress and general-health conditions of both male and female employees. Further, the results revealed that supervisor’s task-oriented DIS (e.g., negative sanctions) increase perceived stress and negative health conditions in both genders. Supervisor’s people-oriented DIS (e.g., ingratiation) lowered perceived stress and triggered botheration-free existence in the employees. The mediation analysis of justice dimensions indicated that, in the case of males, IJ and PJ positively mediate people-oriented DIS effects on stress and general health. However, in females, supervisor’s ingratiation and positive sanctions helped in ameliorating stress through their positive PJ perceptions. Strong indirect effects of supervisor’s task-oriented strategy (e.g., rationality) were observed on male’s stress and general-health through IJ. On the other hand, supervisor’s rationality and assertiveness reduced female employees’ perceived stress through their PJ and DJ perceptions, respectively.

Siti Aisyah Panatik, The Effect of Organizational Justice on Work Engagement: An Empirical Investigation Among Female Engineers in Malaysia, 23 Adv. Sci. Letters 8634 (2017).

Engineering is considered as a male-dominated field even in the 21st century. As such, factors that influence the engagement of females in the field of engineering continues to remain as a debatable topic among both researchers and practitioners. Thus, this empirical research was initiated to investigate how the perception of organizational justice at a workplace affects the work engagement of female engineers in the Malaysian corporate sector. It was hypothesized that three forms of justice (i.e., distributive, procedural and interactional) will be positively related to the dimensions of work engagement (i.e., vigour, dedication and absorption). An online survey was administered to 250 full-time female engineers from various disciplines and sectors in Malaysia. Structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was applied to test the developed hypotheses. Results showed that procedural justice was significantly and positively related to all three dimensions of work engagement. On the contrary, interactional justice was only significantly and positively related to vigour and dedication dimensions. Finally, distributive justice was not significantly related to any dimensions of work engagement. Findings of this study provide useful insight and implications that the level of work engagement of female engineers can be increased through the positive perception of organizational justice such as establishing proper communication in addition to having fair organizational policies and procedures in the workplace.

Mahboobeh Rajabi, Zahra Esmaeli Abdar & Leila Agoush, Organizational Justice and Trust Perceptions: A Comparison of Nurses in Public and Private Hospitals, 15 World Fam. Med. 205 (2017).

Background: Hospital organizational environment influences nurses’ behaviors, attitudes and work quality. Organizational justice and trust are important organizational factors which have significant effects on the organizational and individual work outcomes.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate perceived organizational justice and organizational trust and their relationship in nurses of public and private hospitals in north of Iran and to compare these two groups of nurses.

Methods: The study population included 322 nurses working in six public and private hospitals selected though stratified and simple random sampling. Perceived organizational justice was assessed through Niehoff and Moorman questionnaire and Elonenet et. al questionnaire was used to assess the perceived institutional trust.

Results: Perceived organizational justice and institutional trust of nurses in private hospitals were better than nurses in public hospitals. There was a significant positive relationship between perceived organizational justice and perceived institutional trust and this relationship was more significant in nurses of private hospitals. Organizational justice explained approximately 60% and 50% of the total variance of trust in respectively private and public hospitals. Among three dimensions of organizational justice, procedural justice had a greater relationship with institutional trust and it was a better predictor of nurses’ trust in comparison to distributive and interactional justice in both types of hospitals. Also nurses’ perceptions of organizational justice and trust were not significantly different based on sex, age group, job tenure, employment status, and education level in both types of hospitals.

Conclusion: According to the results, in order to improve organizational trust, it is necessary that hospital managers develop organizational justice. In this way, the resulted positive individual and organizational outcomes can significantly affect the quality of nurses’ services and patients’ satisfaction.

Ravi Srinivasan, Sriram Narayanan & Ram Narasimhan, An Investigation of Justice, Conflict, and Moderating Effects of Supplier Autonomy and Cultural Distance in Buyer–Supplier Relationships, IEEE Transactions Engineering Mgmt. (published online October 2017).

In this paper, we examine the relationship between justice dimensions (procedural, distributive, and interactional justice) and conflict (task and relationship) in buyer–supplier relationships. We develop a nuanced understanding of how justice dimensions reduce task and relationship conflict in buyer–supplier relationships. In addition, we hypothesize that task conflict mediates the relationship between justice dimensions and relationship conflict. We also hypothesize that the effect of justice dimensions on conflict is contingent on the buyer–supplier cultural distance and the degree of autonomy provided to the supplier. Based on primary data on buyer–supplier relationships, our results show that procedural and interactional justice dimensions are more important than distributive fairness. Furthermore, managers can reduce the relationship conflict by mitigating task conflict, which has not been asserted in the buyer–supplier relationship literature. Our results suggest that supplier autonomy and cultural distance, as contextual variables, influence the relationship between interactional justice and conflict dimensions, but they do not influence the relationship between procedural or distributive justice and conflict dimensions. We discuss the relative importance and role of the three justice dimensions in mitigating relational conflicts in buyer–supplier relationships, and implications of our results to theory as well as practice.

Ali Muhammad, The Effect of Contextual Factors on Degree of Trust in Kuwaiti Business Organizations, 12 Int’l J. Econ. & Mgmt. Engineering (published online October 2017).

The study investigates the effect of a number of contextual variables on the degree of trust within Kuwaiti business organizations. The model used in this study suggests that degree of trust within the organization is determined by four contextual variables, namely, centralization, formalization, role ambiguity, and procedural justice. Organizational trust refers to employee’ positive assumptions in regard to the goal and behaviors of other members in the organization according to organizational duties, relationships, experiences, and interrelatedness. According to the norm of reciprocity, individuals with high perceived organizational justice will be compelled to react positively to the organization in the form of higher degree of trust. The duty to exchange kindness for kindness. Based on the exchange theory, this research proposes that procedural justice, role clarity, and voice in the organization will lead to the perception of an organization’s discretionary positive treatment of employees and, in return enhances their trust in the organization. Survey data were collected from a sample of 206 employees working in Kuwaiti business organizations. Results of multiple regression analysis revealed that both organizational justice and formalization have positive effects on organizational trust. Furthermore, results indicate that lower degree of role ambiguity leads to higher degree of organizational trust. On the other hand, centralization was not found to have a significant effect on organizational trust. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.

Farida Abdul, Effect of Tax System Fairness on Tax Compliance Behaviour of Corporate Taxpayers in Kenya, 9 Int’l J. Current Res. 60790 (2017).

Literature indicates that there are four dimensions of tax fairness: horizontal equity, vertical equity, exchange equity, and procedural fairness. Although research suggests that compliance usually increases with tax fairness, this study sought to uncover the individual impact of each dimension of tax fairness on different perspectives of compliance. Using survey data obtained from medium and large corporate taxpayers in Kenya and employing a structural equation modelling technique, we find that procedural fairness is significant in influencing tax compliance among business taxpayers in Kenya. However, its different measures impact on the various dimensions of tax compliance differently. We also find that the different dimensions of tax compliance are influenced differently by the control variables. As such, policies to enhance compliance in Kenya would require a multi-faceted approach that critically takes on board what has traditionally been considered as tax fairness measures since some measures in fact worsen compliance levels, contrary to expectations.

Sedat Boston & Taşkın Kiliҫ, Do Organizational Justice Perceptions Influence Healthcare Workers’ Organizational Citizenship Behavior? 2 Int’l J. Health Services Res. & Pol’y 21 (2017).

Employees in complex and chaotic hospitals have become important for the perception of organizational justice to see themselves as a citizen of the institution. This study aims to investigate the effect of sub-dimensions of organizational justice perceptions on the sub-dimensions of organizational citizenship perceptions in the hospital sector. It will then try to explain how managers' decisions and practices are reflected to hospital staff. Study analyzes were conducted at the individual level. The study was conducted with 346 health workers who volunteered to fill the Likert type questionnaire in three hospitals. Moorman's organizational justice scale was used to measure Organizational Justice Perception, and the scale developed by Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman and Fetter was used to measure Organizational Citizenship Behavior. The aim of this study is to reveal the relationship between the perceptions of organizational justice (OJP) and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) of the health care workers with the model created in the framework of the aims and assumptions of the research. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used to test the developed model. In research findings, it was seen that the perception of organizational justice of health workers affected organizational citizenship behavior. From the subdimensions of organizational justice perception, it has been understood that procedural justice is the strongest influential factor in organizational citizenship perception. It has been determined that the justice of interaction in health care workers affects consciousness and courtesy behaviors positively and distribution justice has a negative relation. It is thought that health managers are required to support the sense of organizational justice in health workers positively, for to strengthen institutional peace and order.

Michel Tremblay, Marie-Claude Gaudet & Xavier Parent-Rocheleau, Good Things Are Not Eternal: How Consideration Leadership and Initiating Structure Influence the Dynamic Nature of Organizational Justice and Extra-Role Behaviors at the Collective Level, J. Leadership & Org. Stud. (published online November 2017).

The objective of this study was to test the linear and curvilinear influence of initiating structure (IS) and consideration leadership on the variability of extra-role behaviors over time, through the mediating effect of within-store level of distributive (DJ) and procedural justice (PJ). Data from 1,857 employees in 116 business units of a Canadian retailer collected over four waves were analyzed using random coefficient modeling. Our results show that IS and consideration have significant linear and curvilinear effects on within-unit PJ and DJ climates over time, and an indirect influence on the within-unit variability of extra-role behaviors through the mediating effect of DJ and PJ climates. Results underline the complexity of the effects of both leadership dimensions on PJ and DJ climates. While consideration is associated with an increase of both justice climates over time, low and high levels of IS are associated with a decrease in PJ climate over time, and a moderate level of IS was related to an increase of PJ climate. Moreover, the positive effects of leadership behaviors on extra-role behaviors shift completely after a certain time threshold. Surprisingly, while unit-level extra-role behaviors increased over time under high structure leadership, such behaviors decreased under high consideration. Finally, the results showed that the positive influence of PJ and DJ climates on unit-level extra-role behaviors decreases over time, and that low fairness units experience a more dramatic decrease of extra-role behaviors with time.

Xiaofu Pan et al., The Effects of Organizational Justice on Positive Organizational Behavior: Evidence from a Large-Sample Survey and a Situational Experiment, Frontiers Psychol. (published online December 2017).

Employees’ positive organizational behavior (POB) is not only to promote organizational function but also improve individual and organizational performance. As an important concept in organizational research, organizational justice is thought to be a universal predictor of employee and organizational outcomes. The current set of two studies examined the effects of organizational justice (OJ) on POB of employees with two different studies, a large-sample survey and a situational experiment.

In study 1, a total of 2566 employees from 45 manufacturing enterprises completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires assessing organizational justice (OJ) and positive organizational behavior (POB) of employees. In study 2, 747 employees were randomly sampled to participate in the situational experiment with 2×2 between-subjects design. They were asked to read one of the four situational stories and to image that this situation happen to the person in the story or them, and then they were asked to imagine how the person in the story or they would have felt and what the person or they subsequently would have done.

The results of study 1 suggested that OJ was correlated with POB of employees and OJ is a positive predictor of POB. The results of study 2 suggested that OJ had significant effects on POB and negative organizational behavior (NOB). Procedural justice accounted for significantly more variance than distributive justice in POB of employees. Distributive justice and procedural justice have different influences on POB and NOB in terms of effectiveness and direction. The effect of OJ on POB was greater than that of NOB. In addition, path analysis indicated that the direct effect of OJ on POB was smaller than its indirect effect. Thus, many intermediary effects could possibly be between them.

Marta Roczniewskal, Sylwiusz Retowski & E. Tory Higgins, How Person-Organization Fit Impacts Employees’ Perceptions of Justice and Well-being, Frontiers Psychol. (published online December 2017).

Regulatory fit theory predicts that when individuals adopt strategies that sustain their motivational orientations, they feel right about what is happening. Our aim was to test these predictions at the person-organization level. Across three studies, we expected and found that feeling right experience that results from a match between an employee and an organizational climate produces perceptions that the company’s prevailing procedures are fair. In Study 1 (N=300), a survey among employees of distinct companies, we observed that the more organizational characteristics matched individual promotion and prevention focus of the employees, the more the employees perceived their workplace as just. Study 2 (N=139), a randomized-control experiment, replicated this pattern by demonstrating that individuals with a predominant promotion focus assigned fairness to the organizational conduct most strongly when they recalled events characterizing a promotion-oriented environment; on the contrary, individuals with a predominant prevention focus deemed their workplace most fair when they were asked to recall prevention-related conduct of their company. In Study 3 (N=376), a cross-sectional field study, we found that regulatory non-fit was associated with lower procedural justice perceptions and this, in turn, related to higher burnout. Theoretical and practical implications of applying regulatory fit theory to person-organization relationships are discussed.

Kimberly E. Chaney & Diana T. Sanchez, Gender-Inclusive Bathrooms Signal Fairness Across Identity Dimensions, Soc. Psychol. & Personality Sci. (published online November 2017).

While gender-inclusive bathrooms serve a practical function of providing a safe public restroom for transgender individuals, they may also signal identity safety for women and racial minorities who may experience identity threat in organizations. Across three studies, we demonstrated that women (Study 1) and racial minorities (Blacks, Latinos; Studies 2 and 3) report greater procedural fairness and a more positive gender (Study 1) or racial (Studies 2 and 3) climate in organizations with gender-inclusive bathrooms compared to traditional bathrooms. Further, these effects were due to companies with gender-inclusive bathrooms being perceived as lower in gender essentialism (Studies 1–3), signaling more egalitarian social environments (Study 3) and promoting identity safety across stigmatized identity dimensions.


Daniel Druckman & Lynn Wagner, Justice Matters: Peace Negotiations, Stable Agreements, and Durable Peace, J. Conflict Resol. (published online November 2017).

Attaining durable peace (DP) after a civil war has proven to be a major challenge, as many negotiated agreements lapse into violence. How can negotiations to terminate civil wars be conducted and peace agreements formulated to contribute to lasting peace? This question is addressed in this study with a novel data set. Focusing on justice, we assess relationships between process (procedural justice [PJ]) and outcome (distributive justice [DJ]) justice on the one hand and stable agreements (SA) and DP on the other. Analyses of fifty peace agreements, which were reached from 1957 to 2008, showed a path from PJ to DJ to SA to DP: The justice variables were instrumental in enhancing both short- and long-term peace. These variables had a stronger impact on DP than a variety of contextual- and case-related factors. The empirical link between justice and peace has implications for the way that peace negotiations are structured.

Huseyin Yesil, Ayse Begum Otken & Hayriye Senem Gol Beser, Organizational Justice as a Determinant of Effective Commitment and Silence of Employees, 3 PressAcademia Procedia 825 (2017).

As we move into the 21st century, increased global competition, rapid developments in the area of information technologies and redesigning of former business processes have deeply affected the way of managing people at workplaces. With the flattening of organizational structures and reduction of management intervention, more responsibilities have been given to the employees for making decisions and managing their daily activities. Besides increasing responsibilities, individuals are expected to be more attached to the goals, objectives and values of their organizations, and also more willing to express their opinions, ideas, suggestions and concerns about work-related issues. However, building affectively committed workforce and breaking silence by encouraging employees to speak up about critical issues have emerged as crucial management challenges of today’s organizations. Numerous theoretical and empirical studies have revealed that attitudinal and behavioral reactions of individuals toward their organizations are mainly influenced by their fairness perceptions. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of perceived organizational justice with employee silence and affective commitment. Results indicated that distributive justice has no significant contribution on employee silence and affective commitment. Also, it was revealed that procedural justice has significant positive contribution on acquiescent silence and defensive silence. Finally, interactional justice has been found to be a good predictor of employee silence and affective commitment.

Antje Niemann & Manfred Schwaiger, The Disclosure of Personal Data: Understanding Customers’ Expectations, in Back to the Future: Using Marketing Basics to Provide Customer Value 507 (Nina Krey & Patricia Rossi eds., 2017).

The exponential growth of available data has created vast opportunities for companies to predict customer behavior and adapt their marketing efforts (McKinsey Global Institute, 2011). However, customers may perceive the handling of their data to be unfair, may switch to a competitor, spread negative word-of-mouth information, or falsify information, thereby making the data useless (Horne, Norberg, & Ekin, 2007; Son & Kim, 2008; Wirtz & Lwin, 2009). Understanding what customers perceive to be fair with regard to their personal data is therefore considered “one of the most serious ethical debates of the information age” (Pavlou, 2011, p. 977). . . .

In a subsequent quantitative study (326 participants recruited via mailing lists, online bulletin boards, and social media; 56% female, with the majority being between 17 and 29 years old), the following results were achieved: First, respondents’ expectations relating to interactional justice have been identified as having the strongest effect. Customers stated that their expectations in this area were generally not fulfilled, as companies provide information in an unattractive manner. Second, in the area of procedural justice, it is most important for customers to have a simple option to control the use of their data. Third, regarding distributive justice, customers expect a fair exchange value for their data and want companies to limit the amount of data collected. To address this issue, different start-ups have begun offering customers the possibility to store their data and sell it to interested companies (Rosenbach, 2016).

Honorata Mazepus, Does Political Legitimacy Matter for Policy Capacity? in Policy Capacity and Governance: Assessing Governmental Competences and Capabilities in Theory and Practice 229 (Xun Wu, Michael Howlett & M. Ramesh eds., 2018).

This chapter considers whether and how political legitimacy is relevant for policy capacity. A growing body of literature shows that across societies, legitimacy increases compliance with court rulings, laws, and policies, and raises satisfaction with distribution of outcomes. Hence, political legitimacy seems to be an important component of policy capacity. As a result, research about how to gain legitimacy and what means can be used to increase legitimacy (normative approval) of particular decisions, laws, or authorities should attract interest from both political scientists and policy scholars. Although more research is needed to provide increasingly fine-tuned answers, one factor that seems to consistently contribute to legitimacy (and as a consequence, to compliance) is the fairness of political authorities. Countering the assumption that successful policy has to entail an increased distribution of goods and services to people, evidence suggests that people are not only concerned about their personal gains; on the contrary, they care about a fair process of decision-making, including transparency, stakeholder voice, and opportunity for engagement in policy development. Procedural considerations might outweigh the importance of personally favourable outcomes or, in the realm of public policy, even effective and efficient policy. This chapter discusses evidence from social psychology, political science, and policy studies to suggest that increasing legitimacy through procedural fairness might be key to successful policymaking.

Nina Grgić-Hlača, Beyond Distributive Fairness in Algorithmic Decision Making: Feature Selection for Procedurally Fair Learning (Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, working paper, 2017).

With widespread use of machine learning methods in numerous domains involving humans, several studies have raised questions about the potential for unfairness towards certain individuals or groups. A number of recent works have proposed methods to measure and eliminate unfairness from machine learning models. However, most of this work has focused on only one dimension of fair decision making: distributive fairness, i.e., the fairness of the decision outcomes. In this work, we leverage the rich literature on organizational justice and focus on another dimension of fair decision making: procedural fairness, i.e., the fairness of the decision making process. We propose measures for procedural fairness that consider the input features used in the decision process, and evaluate the moral judgments of humans regarding the use of these features. We operationalize these measures on two real world datasets using human surveys on the Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) platform, demonstrating that our measures capture important properties of procedurally fair decision making. We provide fast submodular mechanisms to optimize the tradeoff between procedural fairness and prediction accuracy. On our datasets, we observe empirically that procedural fairness may be achieved with little cost to outcome fairness, but that some loss of accuracy is unavoidable.

New Thinking and Interpretations

Frederick I. Lauer et al., Public Engagement in Social-Ecological Systems Management: An Application of Social Justice Theory, Soc’y & Nat. Resources (published online October 2017).

Public engagement is important for improving outcomes of social-ecological systems management. We used a social justice theoretical framework to measure residents’ attitudes toward public engagement processes and satisfaction with outcomes of a restoration project in Western Montana. We predicted process control and decision control domains of procedural justice would significantly predict stakeholder satisfaction, with decision control partially mediating the relationship between process control and satisfaction. We tested these predictions using a path analysis of intercept survey data collected from residents within the project area. We found process control had a significant and positive effect on satisfaction but was fully mediated by decision control, suggesting that successful engagement requires opportunities for stakeholders not only to participate but to clearly shape decisions and outcomes. We discuss implications for public engagement, human dimensions research, and social monitoring of social-ecological systems.

Jodie Thorpe, Procedural Justice in Value Chains Through Public–Private Partnerships, 103 World Dev.162 (2018).

This paper is about making agricultural value chains work for smallholder farmers, and the way that governments can achieve this aim through public–private partnerships (PPPs). Applied to agricultural value chains, PPPs seek to catalyze new investments, support chain upgrading, or improve the performance of poorly functioning chains through joint activities that capitalize on the complementary resources and competencies of public and private partners. Smallholder farmers are frequently the intended beneficiaries. However, there is little understanding of how the terms of value chain participation affect farmer perceptions of and behavior within chains, or the role of the public sector in influencing these arrangements. This paper analyzes in-depth case studies from Ghana, Indonesia, Rwanda, and Uganda to better understand a surprising empirical finding: that farmers that experience strong PPP results in terms of productivity and incomes may nevertheless remain dissatisfied, while those experiencing much more modest gains can view the PPP favorably. At the heart is an analytical framework based on five attributes of “procedural justice”. It finds that public sector actors, through PPPs, are able to shape governance within value chains, influencing the relative skills, knowledge, and resources which different actors possess, the way that farmers are organized to engage in the value chain, and the attributes of procedural justice reflected in chain arrangements. Where procedural justice is weak, farmers are more likely to exit or neglect the arrangements, leaving the value chain underperforming with sub-optimal outcomes for all: for farmers, for lead firms, and for government agencies. Government involvement in value chains should be premised on facilitating relationships that are more procedurally just than those which would be expected to arise through the market alone.

Byron Shane Lowery, Unfriend Me! Applicant Reactions to the Use of Social Networking Information During the Hiring Process (November 2017) (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Louisiana State University).

This study examined applicant reactions to the use of information from different types of social networking websites during hiring processes. Using organizational justice as the framework, participants judged the perceived fairness of using information from different SNWs, and how these perceptions impacted organizational attractiveness and job pursuit intentions. Furthermore, this study examined invasion of privacy perceptions as an antecedent to the fairness perceptions. The results showed that procedural justice rules, including job relatedness and opportunity to perform, were significantly related to fairness perceptions, which influenced the job-related outcomes. In addition, privacy concerns were also significantly related to fairness perceptions of the selection procedure. Overall, the study suggests that participants feel that using information from social networking websites may violate privacy, influencing perceptions of fairness and most importantly, make the applicant feel the organization is not a good place to work. Moreover, these practices may not be seen as related to the job and don’t provide an opportunity for applicants to demonstrate their knowledge, skills, and abilities related to the work. Therefore, organizations should evaluate this practice carefully as it could have serious implications for their applicant pool and overall organization.

Jeremy Firestone et al., Reconsidering Barriers to Wind Power Projects: Community Engagement, Developer Transparency and Place, J. Envtl. Pol’y & Plan. (published online December 2017).

In 2016, we undertook a nationally representative wind power perceptions survey of individuals living within 8 km of over 600 projects in the United States, generating 1705 telephone, web, and mail responses. We sought information on a variety of topics, including procedural fairness and its relationship to project attitude, the foci of the present analysis. We present a series of descriptive statistics and regression results, emphasizing those residents who were aware of their local project prior to construction. Sample weighting is employed to account for stratification and non-response. We find that a developer being open and transparent, a community being able to influence the outcome, and having a say in the planning process are all statistically significant predictors of a process perceived as being ‘fair,’ with an open and transparent developer having the largest effect. We also find developer transparency and ability to influence outcomes to have statistically significant relationships to a more positive attitude, with those findings holding when aesthetics, landscape, and wind turbine sound considerations are controlled for. The results indicate that jurisdictions might consider developing procedures, which ensure citizens are consulted and heard, and benchmarks or best practices for developer interaction with communities and citizens.

Vincenza Capone, Anna Rosa Donizzetti & Giovanna Petrillo, Classroom Relationships, Sense of Community, Perceptions of Justice, and Collective Efficacy for Students’ Social Well-being, J. Community Psychol. (published online December 2017).

A review of literature suggests a lack of studies analyzing the correlates of school context to social well-being (SWB). By integrating the perspective of community psychology and social cognition, this study uses structural equation model to examine the effect of classroom climate, classroom sense of community, collective efficacy, and justice beliefs on students SWB. The study involves 390 high school students (58.6% females) between the ages of 13 and 20 years. The results show that classroom relationships as indicator of classroom climate and sense of community are associated with collective efficacy. Furthermore, collective efficacy, sense of community, and relational and procedural justice correlate with SWB. We discuss the implications of this finding for the positive development of adolescents and school-based intervention programs.

In the News/On the Web

Eric Holmes & Jeff Upson, Tackling History of Race and Policing Starts with Well-Informed Officers, The Hill, October 10, 2017.

Rachel Teicher, A Better Way to Deal with Intimate-Partner Violence, Governing, November 1, 2017.

Erin Durkin, Judges Told to Watch Their Language and Build a Kinder Courtroom in City’s New Program, New York Daily News, November 22, 2017.

Now in Print

These articles have been listed in past quarterly reports as forthcoming but have recently been published in print. This section also includes older articles that have just recently come to our attention.

Jasmine R. Silver et al., Traditional Police Culture, Use of Force, and Procedural Justice: Investigating Individual, Organizational, and Contextual Factors, 34 Just. Q. 1272 (2017).

Justin Nix et al., Demeanor, Race, and Police Perceptions of Procedural Justice: Evidence from Two Randomized Experiments, 34 Just. Q. 1154 (2017).

Tracey Meares, Policing and Procedural Justice: Shaping Citizens’ Identities to Increase Democratic Participation, 111 Nw. U. L. Rev. 1525 (2017).

Elsa Saarikkomäki, Perceptions of Trust in Policing Among Ethnic Minority Youth in Finland, prepared for presentation at the Scandinavian Research Council for Criminology’s 59th Research Seminar (May 9-11, 2017),.

Dennis P. Rosenbaum & Daniel S. Lawrence, Teaching Procedural Justice and Communication Skills During Police–Community Encounters: Results of a Randomized Control Trial with Police Recruits, 13 J. Experimental Criminology 293 (2017).

Bernard Chukwukeluo Chine, Procedural Justice, Distributive Justice and Entrepreneural Intention as Correlate of Job Commitment, 6 Afr. Psychologist 98 (2016).

Natasha S. Madon, Kristina Murphy & Elise Sargeant, Promoting Police Legitimacy Among Disengaged Minority Groups: Does Procedural Justice Matter More? 17 Criminology & Crim. Just. 624 (2017).

Sarah Vidal et al., Adolescents' Legal Socialization: Effects of Interrogation and Miranda Knowledge on Legitimacy, Cynicism, and Procedural Justice, 15 Youth Violence & Juv. Just. 419 (2017).

Erika K. Penner, Catherine S. Shaffer & Jodi L. Viljoen, Questioning Fairness: The Relationship of Mental Health and Psychopathic Characteristics with Young Offenders' Perceptions of Procedural Justice and Legitimacy, 27 Crim. Behav. & Mental Health 354 (2017).

Kuk-Kyoung Moon, Determinants and Consequences of Organizational Justice Climate in the U.S. Federal Government (May 2016) (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Georgia).